List of Freshwater Fishes reported from Brazil
n = 3546
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Table 1: 3512 species currently present in the country/island (endemic, native, introduced, reintroduced);
Table 2: 17 species possibly present in the country/island (stray, questionable);
Table 3: 17 species demonstrated to be absent in the country/island (extirpated, not established, misidentification, error).
Table 4: 3546 species reported from the country/island altogether.
Table : 3546 .
     
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Family Species Author Info Occurrence Common names Abundance Max length Maturity Remark Photo
Anostomidae Abramites hypselonotus (Günther, 1868) Fr, Fi native  Piau-tambaqui (Portuguese), Abramites (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese), Piau-pedra (Portuguese), Sardinha cará (Portuguese)   14.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Amazonas, MNHN 99-180 and 181 (Ref. 9743); recored from tributaries of Rio Jurúa (MZUSP No. 50281, Ref. 42843) and also from Rio Tocantins. 
Loricariidae Acanthicus Hypostominae Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1988 Fr native  Acary avion (English)  20.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins near Cametá, Pará (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 36713. 
Loricariidae Acanthicus hystrix Spix & Agassiz, 1829 Fr native  Canana capeta (Portuguese), Cascudo espinho (Portuguese)   53.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Doradidae Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr native  Daqueiro (Portuguese), Bacu (Portuguese), Bacu pedra (Portuguese), Baiacu (Portuguese), Botoado (Portuguese), Rebeca (Portuguese), Vacu (Portuguese)   11.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Doradidae Acanthodoras depressus (Steindachner, 1881) Fr native   8.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Amazon and Negro River basins (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Acanthodoras spinosissimus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888) Fr native  Bacuzinho roncador (Portuguese), Bagrinho roncador (Portuguese), Peixe gato (Portuguese), Peixe sapo (Portuguese)   13.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Trichomycteridae Acanthopoma annectens Lütken, 1892 Fr native    12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 39970). 
Cichlidae Acarichthys heckelii (Müller & Troschel, 1849) Fr, Fi native  Acará (Portuguese)   13.40 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Acaronia nassa (Heckel, 1840) Fr, Fi native  Acará boca de quguiá (Portuguese)   15.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon Basin. Also Ref. 4537, 36377. 
Cichlidae Acaronia vultuosa Kullander, 1989 Fr native   12.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Heptapteridae Acentronichthys leptos Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr endemic  Bagre (Portuguese), Bagrinho (Portuguese), Mandizinho (Portuguese)   11.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in coastal streams from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina. Also known from the type locality, São Mateus in Espírito Santo (Ref. 36914). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Acestridium discus Haseman, 1911 Fr native    6.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Negro River basin (Ref. 36885). Type locality: Igarapé de Cachoeira Grande, near Manaos, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Acestridium gymnogaster Reis & Lehmann A., 2009 Fr native    Known from the small tributaries to the middle Rio Madeira in Amazonas (Ref. 82432). 
Loricariidae Acestridium scutatum Reis & Lehmann A., 2009 Fr native    Known from the small tributaries to the middle Rio Madeira in Amazonas (Ref. 82432). 
Loricariidae Acestridium triplax Rodríguez & Reis, 2007 Fr native   5.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in small forest creeks near Juruti, Pará State, lower rio Tapajós drainage, Amazon River basin (Ref. 75792). 
Characidae Acestrocephalus acutus Menezes, 2006 Fr native   10.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Tocantins and rio Tapajós drainages (Ref. 75890). 
Characidae Acestrocephalus maculosus Menezes, 2006 Fr native   7.90 cm SL female  Found only in the tributaries of the upper Tocantins (Ref. 75890). 
Characidae Acestrocephalus nigrifasciatus Menezes, 2006 Fr native   9.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Arinos and Rio Juruena, and rio Tapajós basin in Mato Grosso (Ref. 75890). 
Characidae Acestrocephalus pallidus Menezes, 2006 Fr native    6.05 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in rio Madeira and rio Machado, a tributary of rio Madeira (Ref. 75890). 
Characidae Acestrocephalus sardina (Fowler, 1913) Fr native  Pirapuco miri (Portuguese)   13.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Madeira and Das Mortes River basins (Ref. 36811). Found in the tributaries of the rio Madeira, Mato Grosso, rio Jutaí and rio Negro, Amazonas (Ref. 75890). 
Characidae Acestrocephalus stigmatus Menezes, 2006 Fr native   13.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Tocantins, rio das Mortes (tributary of rio Araguaia) and Rio Xingu (Ref. 75890). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus abbreviatus (Cope, 1878) Fr native  Cachorrinho (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese)  27.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus altus Menezes, 1969 Fr native  Cachorrinho (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Joana guenza (Portuguese), Peixe cachorro (Portuguese), Peixe caxorro (Portuguese)   23.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38248). Collected from Lago Arari, ilha de Marajó, Pará (Ref. 27925). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus britskii Menezes, 1969 Fr native  Peixe cachorro (Creole, Portuguese), Peixe caxorro (Portuguese)  16.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Represa de Três Marias, Rio Sao Francisco basin, Minas Gerais (Ref. 27925). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus falcatus (Bloch, 1794) Fr, Fi native  Ueua (Portuguese), Cachorinho (Portuguese), Cachorrinho (Portuguese), Dentudo (Portuguese), Dentudo dourado (Portuguese), Icanga (Portuguese), Matrinchã (Portuguese), Peixe cachorro (Portuguese), Piau cachorro (Portuguese), Pirapuco (Portuguese), Saicanga (Portuguese), Trinchã (Portuguese)   30.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Ref. 38248), Machado (Ref. 38248) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Recorded from the state of Para (Ref. 27188). Also Ref. 38248. 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus falcirostris (Cuvier, 1819) Fr, Fi native  Peixe cachorro (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese), Anicauera (Portuguese), Cachorrinho (Portuguese), Dentudo (Portuguese), Piau cachorro (Portuguese), Pirapuco (Portuguese)   45.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38248). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus grandoculis Menezes & Géry, 1983 Fr native  Peixe cachorro (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese)   10.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: mouth of Rio Urubaxi, Rio Negro, Amazonas, MZUSP 25863 (holotype, 10 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Rio Negro: Arirará , MZUSP 25977; Mararuiá, MZUSP 25887; Rio Mararuiá, MZUSP 25912 - 25916; Paraná do Jacaré, MZUSP 25917; Massarabi, MZUSP 25931 (Ref. 27925). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus heterolepis (Cope, 1878) Fr native  Peixe cachorro (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese)   40.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38248). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus isalineae Menezes & Géry, 1983 Fr native    10.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio dos Marmelos, Rio Madeira basin, 110 km east of Humaitá along rodovia Transamazônica, Amazonas, MZUSP 25849 (holotype of A. isalineae, 8.9 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Lütken, 1875) Fr, Fi native  Peixe cadela (Portuguese), Peixe cachorro (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese), Bicuda (Portuguese), Peixe-cadela (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 31.80 cm SL male/unsexed 10.7 TL Known from São Francisco (Ref. 38248) and Piracicaba rivers (Ref. 50076). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus maculipinna Menezes & Géry, 1983 Fr native  Peixe cachorro (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese)  7.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38248). Museum: Rio Preto da Eva, between Manaus and Itacoatiara, Amazonas, MZUSP 25861 (holotype of A. maculipinna, 7.9 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus microlepis (Jardine, 1841) Fr native  Cachorinho (Portuguese), Bada (Portuguese), Cachorrinho (Portuguese), Piau cachorro (Portuguese), Pirá andirá (Portuguese), Ueua (Portuguese)   37.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38248). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus minimus Menezes, 1969 Fr native  Cachorrinho (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese)   6.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Lago Jacaré, Rio Trombetas, Amazon R. basin, DZSP 4608 (holotype of A. minimus, 6.3 cm TL) (Ref. 27925). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus nasutus Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native  Cachorrinho (Creole, Portuguese), Ueua (Creole, Portuguese)   6.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38248). 
Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro Menezes, 1992 Fr, Fi native  Peixe-cachorro (Portuguese), Peixe cachorro (Creole, Portuguese), Dourado-cachorro (Portuguese)   35.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Museum: Rio Cuiabá, Volta Grande, Município de Santo Antônio do Leverger, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 40256 (holotype of A. pantaneiro, 14.5 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 38248. 
Achiridae Achirus achirus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr, Br, M native  Linguado (Portuguese), Chula (Portuguese), Linguado-lixa (Portuguese), Soia (Portuguese), Solha (Portuguese), Solha verdadeira (Portuguese), Tapa (Portuguese)  37.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Acinocheirodon melanogramma Malabarba & Weitzman, 1999 Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese), Piabinha (Creole, Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese)  3.77 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from São Francisco and Jequitinhonha River basins (Ref. 37055). 
Serrasalmidae Acnodon normani Gosline, 1951 Fr native  Pacu (Portuguese)   19.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Amazon, Xingu and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 39031). 
Serrasalmidae Acnodon senai Jégu & Santos, 1990 Fr native   13.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Jari River basin (Ref. 39031). Museum: beach at downstream of Rio Jari, Amapà, Carapatinho I., MZUSP 40050 (paratypes of A. senai) (Ref. 27925). 
Apteronotidae Adontosternarchus balaenops (Cope, 1878) Fr native    25.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Adontosternarchus clarkae Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin, 1985 Fr native    18.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Ngero River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Adontosternarchus devenanzii Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin, 1985 Fr native   18.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Adontosternarchus duartei de Santana & Vari, 2012 Fr native   18.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Apteronotidae Adontosternarchus nebulosus Lundberg & Cox Fernandes, 2007 Fr native    21.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon basin (Ref. 78211). 
Apteronotidae Adontosternarchus sachsi (Peters, 1877) Fr native   32.20 cm TL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Aequidens diadema (Heckel, 1840) Fr native   11.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the upper Negro River (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Aequidens epae Kullander, 1995 Fr endemic    11.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Amazonas basin, in the lower Rio Tapajós drainage near Jacareacanga and São Luis, Pará (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Río Tapajós drainage, igarapé in Barreirinha, Pará, Brazil. 
Cichlidae Aequidens gerciliae Kullander, 1995 Fr endemic    12.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;9.74 cm SL female  Found only in the Amazon River basin in the upper Rio Aripuanã, near Salto (or Cachoeira) de Dardanelos and in a headwater stream on the Juína-Vilhena road (Ref. 26647). Also Ref. 36377. 
Cichlidae Aequidens mauesanus Kullander, 1997 Fr native    13.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the lower rio Maués, a tributary to the paraná Uraria, a channel of Amazon and along the rio Arapiuns, a tributary fo the lower rio Tapajos (Ref. 26676). Also Ref. 36377. 
Cichlidae Aequidens michaeli Kullander, 1995 Fr endemic    20.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known only from Amazon River basin in the lower Xingu River at Altamira and Belo Monte (Ref. 26647). Also Ref. 36377. 
Cichlidae Aequidens pallidus (Heckel, 1840) Fr endemic  Acará (Portuguese), Acarra (Portuguese), Cará de grota (Portuguese), Cará de praia (Portuguese), Cará luzia (Portuguese)   14.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the middle and lower Negro River, Uatumã, Preto da Eva, and Puraquequara rivers.(Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Negro of Rio Amazonas, South America (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 4537, 12251. 
Cichlidae Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 Fr native  Cará (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Carazinho (Portuguese)   10.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Internal lakes of the Piquiri-Itiquira system, Itiquira, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 28-732 (holotype of Aequidens plagiozonatus, 9.76 cm SL) (Ref. 86505). Known from the Amazon River basin in the upper Guaporé River drainage and the Paraná River basin in the upper Paraguay River drainage (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Aequidens rondoni (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918) Fr endemic   9.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the upper Tapajós River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Aequidens tetramerus (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Carà (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Acará dola (Portuguese), Acará pixuna (Portuguese), Acará-cuaima (Portuguese), Acará-pixuna (Portuguese), Acará-tonto (Portuguese), Acaracuima (Portuguese), Acarácuíma (Portuguese), Acaradola (Portuguese), Acarra miri (Portuguese)   16.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Ref. 36377) and Machado River basins (Ref. 97589). Found in Parnaiba and Tocantins drainages (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 4537. 
Cichlidae Aequidens tubicen Kullander & Ferreira, 1991 Fr endemic    11.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Estado do Pará, Río Trombetas drainage. Reserva Biológica de Trombetas, igarapé at km 4 on the road to Perirnetral Norte, MZUSP 15887 (holotype of Aequidens tubicen, 10.38 cm SL, adult female) (Ref. 86501). Known only from the Amazon River basin in the Trombetas Rriver close to Cachoeira Porteira (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Aequidens viridis (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Acará cascudo (Portuguese)   16.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Guaporé River, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 4537. 
Doradidae Agamyxis pectinifrons (Cope, 1870) Fr native    15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Auchenipteridae Ageneiosus inermis (Linnaeus, 1766) Fr, Fi native  Palmito (Portuguese), Andubé (Portuguese), Bocarra (Portuguese), Bocudo (Portuguese), Doncellé (Portuguese), Fidalgo (Portuguese), Madubé (Portuguese), Mandibé (Portuguese), Mandobé (Portuguese), Mandube (Portuguese), Mandubé (Portuguese), Mandubi (Portuguese), Manduvê (Portuguese), Peixe palmito (Portuguese)   64.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 37098, 81048. 
Auchenipteridae Ageneiosus militaris Valenciennes, 1835 Fr native  Fidalgo (Portuguese), Manduvê (Portuguese), Manduvi (Portuguese), Matrinchã (Portuguese), Palmito de ferrão (Portuguese), Palmito de-ferrao (Portuguese)   30.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Ageneiosus polystictus Steindachner, 1915 Fr native  Mandobé (Portuguese)  45.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro and lower Branco River basins (Ref. 37098). 
Auchenipteridae Ageneiosus ucayalensis Castelnau, 1855 Fr, Fi native  Bocudo (Portuguese), Fidalgo (Portuguese), Fidalgo comprido (Portuguese), Madubé (Portuguese), Mampará (Portuguese), Mandibé (Portuguese), Mandubé (Portuguese), Mandubi (Portuguese), Manduvê (Portuguese), Palmito-de-ferrão (Portuguese), Patinha (Portuguese), Ximbé (Portuguese)   35.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Auchenipteridae Ageneiosus uranophthalmus Ribeiro & Rapp Py-Daniel, 2010 Fr native     Found in river channels of the central Amazon basin (Ref. 83902). 
Auchenipteridae Ageneiosus vittatus Steindachner, 1908 Fr native    22.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Triportheidae Agoniates anchovia Eigenmann, 1914 Fr native    14.80 cm SL male/unsexed    
Triportheidae Agoniates halecinus Müller & Troschel, 1845 Fr native  Maiaca (Portuguese), Apapai (Portuguese)   26.80 cm TL male/unsexed    
Pimelodidae Aguarunichthys inpai Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Jégu, 1993 Fr endemic    42.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle Amazon River basin (Ref. 36506). 
Pimelodidae Aguarunichthys tocantinsensis Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Jégu, 1993 Fr endemic  Jundiá (Portuguese)   31.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36506). 
Pimelodidae Aguarunichthys torosus Stewart, 1986 Fr native    34.60 cm SL male/unsexed    
Aspredinidae Amaralia hypsiura (Kner, 1855) Fr native    13.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36695). Type locality, Rio Branco, Amazonas (Ref. 6868). 
Aspredinidae Amaralia oviraptor Friel & Carvalho, 2016 Fr native   12.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Paraná drainage and Paraguay River Basin (Ref. 111083). 
Characidae Amazonspinther dalmata Bührnheim, Carvalho, Malabarba & Weitzman, 2008 Fr native    1.98 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Purus and Rio Madeira basins in State of Amazonas (Ref. 79887). Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Engraulidae Amazonsprattus scintilla Roberts, 1984 Fr native   2.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Doradidae Amblydoras affinis (Kner, 1855) Fr native    13.20 cm SL male/unsexed    
Doradidae Amblydoras monitor (Cope, 1872) Fr native   9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Amblydoras nheco (Higuchi, Birindelli, Sousa & Britski, 2007) Fr native   7.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Crenuchidae Ammocryptocharax elegans Weitzman & Kanazawa, 1976 Fr native    3.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Amazon River (Ref. 37059). Recorded from the Guajara Mirim, Estado de Rondonia (Ref. 13683). 
Crenuchidae Ammocryptocharax minutus Buckup, 1993 Fr native   2.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). Museum: Rio Urubaxi, beach near confluence with Rio Negro, MZUSP 43671 (holotype, 1.97 cm SL) (Ref. 13683). 
Trichomycteridae Ammoglanis amapaensis Mattos, Costa & Gama, 2008 Fr native   1.78 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Pparque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque, Município Serra do Navio, rio Jari basin, rio Mapaoni, estado do Amapá, IEPA 2497 (holotype of Ammoglanis amapaensis, 1.52 cm SL). Collected from Estado do Amapa, in Rios Amapari, Araguari and Jari basins (Ref. 78711). 
Trichomycteridae Ammoglanis diaphanus Costa, 1994 Fr native   1.87 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only the from type locality: stream tributary to Rio Javaés, Rio Araguaia basin, Tocantins (Ref. 26653). Also Ref. 39970. 
Anablepidae Anableps anableps (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr, Br native  Quatro-olhos (Portuguese), Tariota (Portuguese), Tralhote (Portuguese), Tralhoto (Portuguese)   30.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 4537, 5217, 26938. 
Anablepidae Anableps microlepis Müller & Troschel, 1844 Fr, Br native  Tralhote (Portuguese), Quatro-olhos (Portuguese), Tariota (Portuguese), Tralhoto (Portuguese)  32.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 4537, 5217. 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides amanan (Costa & Lazzarotto, 2008) Fr native   2.81 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.79 cm SL female  Type locality, Pools at the floodplains of Igarapé do Baré, near Cano do Lago de Beleza, Lago Amanã system, Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã, Japurá-Solimões drainage, Rio Amazonas basin, Município de Maraã, Estado do Amazonas, UFRJ 6571 (holotype of Rivulus amanan, 2.65 cm SL, male). Known only from 2 localities in northern Brazil, near Igarapé do Baré, a stream draining into lago Amanã, Japurá-Solimões drainage system, rio Amazonas basin (Ref. 78702). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides atratus (Garman, 1895) Fr native    4.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides bahianus (Huber, 1990) Fr endemic   5.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Anablepsoides beniensis (Myers, 1927) Fr native    4.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Mamoré-Guaporé River basin (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides cajariensis (Costa & De Luca, 2011) Fr native   5.62 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Cajari River drainage, lower Amazonas River basin in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 86530). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides cearensis (Costa & Vono, 2009) Fr native    Known from São Gonçalo do Amarante, Ceará in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 81224). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides gamae Costa, Bragança & Amorim, 2013 Fr native   2.22 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.18 cm SL female  Found in the Jari river drainage, lower Amazonas river basin in Amapá state (Ref. 94717). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides henschelae Costa, Bragança & Amorim, 2013 Fr native   2.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in a pool adjacent to stream about 35 km W of Jundiá, road BR-431, Jauaperi river drainage in Roraima state (Ref. 94717). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides igneus (Huber, 1991) Fr native   15.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;9.00 cm TL female  Amapa. 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides jari Costa, Bragança & Amorim, 2013 Fr native   3.10 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.45 cm SL female  Found in the lower Jari river drainage, Amazonas river basin in northern Brazil (Ref. 94717). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides limoncochae (Hoedeman, 1962) Fr native   7.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Anablepsoides micropus (Steindachner, 1863) Fr endemic   7.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides ornatus (Garman, 1895) Fr native    4.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides ottonii Costa, Bragança & Amorim, 2013 Fr native   2.22 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.25 cm SL female  Found in the Caurés river drainage, a tributary of the Negro river, Amazonas river basin in Amazonas state (Ref. 94717). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides roraima Costa, Bragança & Amorim, 2013 Fr native   3.18 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.90 cm SL female  Known from the middle Branco river drainage, Amazonas the river basin in northern Brazil (Ref. 94717). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides taeniatus (Fowler, 1945) Fr native    6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides tocantinensis (Costa, 2010) Fr native    Known from the Tocantins River drainage (Ref. 59043). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides urophthalmus (Günther, 1866) Fr endemic  Pirapitanga (Portuguese), Rívulo dourado (Portuguese)  7.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides xanthonotus (Ahl, 1926) Fr endemic   7.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Anablepsoides xinguensis (Costa, 2010) Fr native    Known from the lower Xingu River drainage, eastern Amazonas River basin in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 84054). 
Doradidae Anadoras insculptus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912) Fr native     
Doradidae Anadoras regani (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native  quiri-quiri (Portuguese)  11.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pará (Ref. 6868). Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Anadoras weddellii (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native  Carataí (Portuguese), Uarioroch (Portuguese)   15.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Engraulidae Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes, 1848) Fr, Br, M native  Sardinha (Portuguese), Arenque (Portuguese), Arenque-da-noite (Portuguese), Enchoveta (Portuguese), Manjuba (Portuguese), Manjuba-savelha (Portuguese), Mulatinha (Portuguese), Sardinha de gato (Portuguese), Sardinha vermelha (Portuguese), Sardinha-amarela (Portuguese)  24.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Engraulidae Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker, 1865) Fr, Br native  Maiacá (Portuguese), Manjuba (Portuguese), Sardinha-do-gato (Portuguese)  15.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Reported from above Manaus and Rio Janaperi at least 80 km above its junction with the Rio Negro. Also Ref. 12225. 
Engraulidae Anchoviella alleni (Myers, 1940) Fr native    8.80 cm SL male/unsexed   
Engraulidae Anchoviella carrikeri Fowler, 1940 Fr native    6.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 50628). 
Engraulidae Anchoviella guianensis (Eigenmann, 1912) Fr, Br native  Sardinha (Portuguese)   11.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Branco, Roraima (Ref. 89861). 
Engraulidae Anchoviella jamesi (Jordan & Seale, 1926) Fr native    5.02 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the rio Tefé, Jurupari, Amazonas (Ref. 89861). 
Engraulidae Anchoviella juruasanga Loeb, 2012 Fr native    5.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the tributaries of the middle and lower Amazon basin including rio Tapajós, rio Negro, rio Branco, rio Madeira, rio Trombetas, rio Tocantins, rio Maicá, and rio Jari (Ref. 89861). 
Engraulidae Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911) Fr, Br, M, Fi native  Sardinha (Portuguese), Don-don (Portuguese), Manjuba (Portuguese), Manjubinha (Portuguese), Sardinha selvagem (Portuguese)  18.00 cm TL male/unsexed 8.8 TL Captured in great numbers during the warmer months in the region of Rio Ribiera de Iguape on the coast of Sao Paolo (Ref. 189). Caught by shrimp trawl in Pirambu, Sergipe (Ref. 118626). 
Engraulidae Anchoviella sanfranciscana Barbosa, Gomes da Silva, da Rocha Araújo & Carvalho, 2017 Fr, Br native   12.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the estuary of the São Francisco River in the region of Cabeço: close to the sea in the municipality of Brejo Grande, State of Sergipe; and upstream near to the city of Penedo, State of Alagoas (Ref. 116921). 
Engraulidae Anchoviella vaillanti (Steindachner, 1908) Fr endemic  Manjuba (Portuguese), Pilombeta (Portuguese)   6.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle São Francisco River (Ref. 50628). 
Loricariidae Ancistomus feldbergae (de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Rocha, 2012) Fr native  L12 (English), L13 (English)  17.08 cm SL male/unsexed  Known so far from the Rio Xingu basin. Speciemens were recorded from Rio Xingu (Costa Junior, Ilha de Babaquara, and Gorgulho da Rita) and its tributaries, the Rio Iriri and Rio Curua (Ref. 91751). 
Loricariidae Ancistomus micrommatos (Cardoso & Lucinda, 2003) Fr native   11.85 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the upper rio Tocantins and its tributaries. Type locality, between Minaçu and Cavalcante, at site of future hydroelectric dam of Serra da Mesa, rio Tocantins, Goiás, MNRJ 20873 (holotype, 10.29 cm SL, male) (Ref. 49598). 
Loricariidae Ancistomus snethlageae (Steindachner, 1911) Fr endemic   22.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós River basin (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Ancistomus spilomma (Cardoso & Lucinda, 2003) Fr native   14.21 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from lower and upper rio Tocantins drainage. Type locality, Núcleo de Estudos Ambientais, rio Tocantins near mouth of rio Lajeado, Porto Franco, Tocantins, MCP 28425 (holotype, 13.05 cm SL) (Ref. 49598). 
Loricariidae Ancistomus spinosissimus (Cardoso & Lucinda, 2003) Fr native   12.69 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the middle and upper rio Tocantins and its tributaries (Ref. 49598). Type locality, Rio Maranhão, near mouth of the rio Tocantinzinho, border of Niquelândia and Campinaçu, 13°5'25"S, 48°19'08"W, Goiás (Ref. 50838). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus abilhoai Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki, 2009 Fr native    10.62 cm SL male/unsexed ;8.49 cm SL female  Type locality, Paraná State, Lapa, middle Rio Iguaçu basin, Rio Iguaçu, MZUSP 104116 (holotype of Ancistrus abilhoai, 9.93 cm SL, male). Commonly found in upper and middle Rio Iguaçu basin, Southern Brazil, and one single lot at lower Rio Iguaçu (Ref. 83296). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus agostinhoi Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki, 2009 Fr native    9.61 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.63 cm SL female  Type locality, Paraná State, Foz do Jordão, lower Rio Iguaçu basin, Rio Jordão, MZUSP 104118 (holotype of Ancistrus agostinhoi, 9.61 cm SL, male). Known only from the Rio Jordão drainage, affluent of lower Rio Iguaçu, Southern Brazil (Ref. 83296). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus aguaboensis Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber, 2001 Fr native   6.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from its type locality, a restricted area 10 km from Minaçú on road Minaçú-Campinaçu, small tributary of the upper rio Tocantins, córrego Água Boa, Minaçú, Goiás, Brazil (Ref. 40950). Also Ref. 36713. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus brevipinnis (Regan, 1904) Fr endemic  Cascudo (Portuguese), Cascudo de espinhos (Portuguese)  10.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 6868). Found in Laguna dos Patos basin (Ref. 36713). Recorded from Betari River basin, Southeastern Brazil (Ref. 38979). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus cirrhosus (Valenciennes, 1836) Fr misidentification  Cascudo roseta (Portuguese)   8.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurrence in this country not confirmed by S. Fisch-Muller; probably a misidentification. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus claro Knaack, 1999 Fr endemic   6.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Cuiabá River basin in upper Paraguay River drainage (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis, 1987 Fr endemic   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Vicente and Angélica-Bezerra cave system in upper Paraná River, Tocantins River drainage (Ref. 36713). Type locality: Caverna Passa Três, ca. 300 m into the cave, Rio Sao Vicente system, Sao Domingos, Goiás (Ref. 27299). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus damasceni (Steindachner, 1907) Fr endemic    6.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Parnaíba River basin (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus dolichopterus Kner, 1854 Fr native  Cascudo negro aba branca (Portuguese), Bodó seda (Portuguese)  11.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper and middle Amazon River basin and from Negro, lower Trombetas, Tefé, Madeira and Tapajós River basins. (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus dubius Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr native  Vieja (Portuguese)  12.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Gurupa (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 36713. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus formoso Sabino & Trajano, 1997 Fr endemic  Cascudo (Portuguese)   7.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Buraco do Ducho Cave in Formoso phreatic system (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus fulvus (Holly, 1929) Fr endemic   8.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Acará River basin in lower Amazon drainage (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus hoplogenys (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Bodozinho (Portuguese)   15.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Capin River, Para (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus jataiensis Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco, 2005 Fr native   5.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the type locality, a small tributary of the rio Vermelho, upper Tocantins basin (Ref. 54498). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus latifrons (Günther, 1869) Fr native   15.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Solimões River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus leucostictus (Günther, 1864) Fr native    10.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Ancistrus lithurgicus Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native   13.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus maculatus (Steindachner, 1881) Fr endemic   11.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36713). Found in Obidos (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus mattogrossensis Miranda Ribeiro, 1912 Fr native    No report of other specimen other than the probably lost paratypes (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus maximus de Oliveira, Zuanon, Zawadzki & Py-Daniel, 2015 Fr native   20.08 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Ancistrus minutus Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber, 2001 Fr endemic   5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, a left bank tributary of the upper rio Tocantins, córrego Batéis, Minaçú, Goiás (Ref. 40950). Also Ref. 36713. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus mullerae Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki, 2009 Fr native    12.48 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.98 cm SL female  Type locality, Paraná State, Três Barras do Paraná, lower Rio Iguaçu basin, affluent of Rio Iguaçu, Rio Guarani, MZUSP 104121 (holotype of Ancistrus mullerae, 11.91 cm SL, male). Known from the ower Rio Iguaçu basin, upstream from Cataratas do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil (Ref. 83296).. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus multispinis (Regan, 1912) Fr endemic  Barbadinho (Portuguese)   14.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Macacú River to the Maquiné River (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus parecis Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco, 2005 Fr native   5.95 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Mato Grosso: Campos de Júlio: rio Formiga (tributary of rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós basin), on the road BR-364 (MT-235), between Campos de Júlio and Sapezal, MCP 35570 (holotype of Ancistrus parecis, 59.5 mm SL, male). Known from the upper rio Juruena of the rio Tapajós basin (Ref. 56914). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus ranunculus Muller, Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon, 1994 Fr endemic  Cascudo preto velho (Portuguese)  19.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Xingu and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus reisi Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco, 2005 Fr native   6.08 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Tocantins drainage in Tocantins State (Ref. 54498). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus salgadae Fowler, 1941 Fr endemic   2.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Jaguaribe River basin (Ref. 48602). Recorded from Rio Salgade, Ico (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus stigmaticus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr endemic  Barbadinho (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese)   15.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Araguaia River basin (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus taunayi Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 Fr native  Cascudo de espinhos (Portuguese), Cascudo-roseta (Portuguese)  11.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36713, 79585). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Ancistrus tombador Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco, 2005 Fr native   6.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from small rivers of the rio Arinos basin, upper rio Tapajós drainage in Mato Grosso state (Ref. 54498). 
Loricariidae Ancistrus verecundus Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco, 2005 Fr native   5.46 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper rio Madeira basin (Ref. 56914). 
Characidae Andromakhe saguazu (Casciotta, Almirón & Azpelicueta, 2003) Fr native    9.23 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Andromakhe stenohalina (Messner, 1962) Fr native   7.76 cm SL male/unsexed   
Doradidae Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes, 1821) Fr native  Cuyu cuyu (Portuguese)  32.30 cm SL male/unsexed   
Anguillidae Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr, Br, M not established  Enguia (Portuguese)  122 cm TL male/unsexed ;133 cm TL female  Established in aquaculture through continuous importation. Has not established in the wild. 
Anguillidae Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 Fr not established  Enguia (Portuguese)  150 cm TL male/unsexed  Has established in aquaculture through continuous importation. Has not established in the wild (Ref. 1739). 
Hemiodontidae Anodus elongatus Agassiz, 1829 Fr, Fi native  Ubarana (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese), Cubiu orana (Portuguese), Flecheiro (Portuguese), Orana (Portuguese)   30.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Japurá, Trombetas, Purus, Jutai, Solimões) and Ucayali River basins (Ref. 38289). Also Ref. 598, 12202. 
Hemiodontidae Anodus orinocensis (Steindachner, 1887) Fr native  Ubarana (Portuguese)   27.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 38289). 
Anostomidae Anostomoides laticeps (Eigenmann, 1912) Fr native  Araçu (Portuguese), Aracu cabeça-gorda (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese), Sabão (Portuguese)   30.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from fish markets in Santarém. 
Anostomidae Anostomoides passionis Santos & Zuanon, 2006 Fr native   30.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Xingu (Ref. 57460). 
Anostomidae Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr native  Anostomo (Portuguese), Patuarangya (Portuguese)  16.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Anostomus ternetzi Fernández-Yépez, 1949 Fr native  Anostomo (Portuguese), Aracu (Portuguese), Patuarangya (Portuguese), Ximboré (Portuguese) occasional (usually not seen) 12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Araguaia and Amazon River basins (Ref. 36801). Found in Machado river basin, Rondonia state (Ref. 97589). Also Ref. 598, 12225. 
Parodontidae Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879) Fr native  Duro-duro (Portuguese), Canivete (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese)   17.00 cm SL male/unsexed 7.3 TL Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). Also found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 38267. 
Parodontidae Apareiodon argenteus Pavanelli & Britski, 2003 Fr native   7.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Tocantins at Serra da Mesa, below the hydroelectric power dam, Minaçu, Goiás (Ref. 47883). 
Parodontidae Apareiodon cavalcante Pavanelli & Britski, 2003 Fr native   5.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Ribeirão do Padre, tributary on the right bank of the Rio Tocantinzinho, Cavalcante, Alto Tocantins, Goiás (Ref. 47883). 
Parodontidae Apareiodon davisi Fowler, 1941 Fr native  Piaba-rei (Portuguese), Peixe-rei (Portuguese)   5.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Jaguaribe and Paraíba River basins (Ref. 38267). Also Ref. 10296. 
Parodontidae Apareiodon hasemani Eigenmann, 1916 Fr native  Canivete (Portuguese)  6.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Sao Francisco drainage (Ref. 10296). Also Ref. 38267. 
Parodontidae Apareiodon ibitiensis Amaral Campos, 1944 Fr native  Canivete (Portuguese), Ibiti sucker characin (English), Ibiti sucker darter (English)   11.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Upper Paraná and upper São Francisco River basins (Ref. 38267). Foun in Cachoeira do Espraiado, Rio Mogi-Guaçu, Primera Cachoeira Grande depois de Soledade, Estado Minas Gerais (Ref. 33021). Museum: Rio Camanducaia, Monte Alegre, Sao Paulo, MZUSP 3411 (holotype of A. ibitiensis, 11.3 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 35189. 
Parodontidae Apareiodon itapicuruensis Eigenmann & Henn, 1916 Fr native    8.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Itapicuru drainage, Bahia (Ref. 10296). 
Parodontidae Apareiodon machrisi Travassos, 1957 Fr native   7.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin (Ref. 10296, 47883, 38267). 
Parodontidae Apareiodon piracicabae (Eigenmann, 1907) Fr native  Canivete (Portuguese)   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Upper Paraná and upper São Francisco River basins. (Ref. 38267). Museum: MZUSP 20467 (Ref. 13118). 
Parodontidae Apareiodon tigrinus Pavanelli & Britski, 2003 Fr native   6.41 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Córrego do Jacaré, close to the bridge, Santa Rita do Araguaia, Goiás (Ref. 47883). 
Parodontidae Apareiodon vittatus Garavello, 1977 Fr native  Canivete (Portuguese)  14.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Iguaçu River basin (Ref. 38267). Museum: Rio Iguaçu, Bituruna, Estado do Paraná, MZUSP 12999 - 13000 (paratypes of A. vittatus) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 10296. 
Parodontidae Apareiodon vladii Pavanelli, 2006 Fr native   11.34 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Piquiri, upper Rio Paraná basin in the State of Paraná (Ref. 57026). 
Loricariidae Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native    13.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Rio Madeira, ca. 200 mi. east of 63°54'W, Brazil (type locality of P. madeirae); near mouth of Rio Macaua, tributary of Rio Iaco, itself a tributary to Rio Purus, near Sena Madureira, (type locality of P. micropunctatus) (Ref. 26282, 6868). Museum: Rio Purus, NMW 44271 (lectotype, 11.31 cm SL) (Ref. 30403). 
Characidae Aphyocharax agassizii (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native   3.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38382). Type locality: Jatuarana. 
Characidae Aphyocharax alburnus (Günther, 1869) Fr native    8.00 cm male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38382). 
Characidae Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 Fr native  Cauda vermelha (Portuguese), Lambari (Portuguese)   5.50 cm TL male/unsexed 18 TL Known from the Paraná River basin (Ref. 38382). 
Characidae Aphyocharax dentatus Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 Fr native  Piquirão (Portuguese), Douradinho (Portuguese)   7.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 38382). Recorded from Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Aphyocharax nattereri (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native    3.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon and Paraguay basins (Ref. 38382). 
Characidae Aphyocharax rathbuni Eigenmann, 1907 Fr native    2.69 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pantanal (Ref. 81048). 
Characidae Aphyocheirodon hemigrammus Eigenmann, 1915 Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese), Piabinha (Creole, Portuguese)   4.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 37055). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Aphyodite apiaka Esguícero & Castro, 2017 Fr native   3.11 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Rio Aripuanã, lower Rio Madeira basin, Amazonas State (Ref. 116757). 
Characidae Aphyodite grammica Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native    3.20 cm male/unsexed  Known from Rio Negro, upper Rio Amazonas basin (Ref. 116757). 
Characidae Aphyodite tupebas Esguícero & Castro, 2017 Fr native   2.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the lower Rio Solimões, including its tributary Rio Tefé in Amazonas State (Ref. 116757). 
Rivulidae Aphyolebias boticarioi Costa, 2004 Fr native    Known from the upper Rio Purus drainage, Amazon basin in northern Brazil (Ref. 52556). 
Achiridae Apionichthys dumerili Kaup, 1858 Fr, Br native  Linguado (Portuguese), Tapa (Portuguese)  13.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from estuarine areas of Oyapock, Amazon and Grajaú rivers; also enters low land freshwaters in Jari river (Ref. 36798). Also Ref. 49504. 
Achiridae Apionichthys finis (Eigenmann, 1912) Fr native  Linguado (Portuguese), Sóia (Portuguese)   8.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36798). 
Achiridae Apionichthys menezesi Ramos, 2003 Fr native   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ref. 49504). 
Achiridae Apionichthys nattereri (Steindachner, 1876) Fr native  Linguado (Portuguese), Aramaçá (Portuguese), Aramaçã (Portuguese), Linguado de rio (Portuguese)  23.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36798). 
Achiridae Apionichthys rosai Ramos, 2003 Fr native    3.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon basin (Ref. 49504). 
Achiridae Apionichthys seripierriae Ramos, 2003 Fr native   8.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Jurua and Rio Amazonas (Ref. 49504). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma acrensis Staeck, 2003 Fr native     Found in the Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma agassizii (Steindachner, 1875) Fr native  Agassízi (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese)   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma amoena (Cope, 1872) Fr misidentification   6.30 cm TL male/unsexed ;6.00 cm female  Recorded from this country (Ref. 7020). Occurrence of the species in the country is not confirmed (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma angayuara Kullander & Ferreira, 2005 Fr native    2.47 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.27 cm SL female  Type locality, Rio Trombetas right bank, below cachoeira Vira Mundo, Pará State (Ref. 56722). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma arua Römer & Warzel, 1998 Fr native    4.40 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.50 cm SL female  Known only from the type locality in a small igarapé (forest stream), a right-bank affluent of the Rio Arua, upstream of a waterfall near the village of Arua in the upper Arapiuns system, Para State. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma bitaeniata Pellegrin, 1936 Fr native   4.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Igarapé Preto and Lago Tefé (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma borellii (Regan, 1906) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese)   3.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paraguay River basin (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 4537. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma brevis Kullander, 1980 Fr native    3.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uaupés River basin, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Small igarapé of Lago Penera, 0°01'N, 67°21'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma cacatuoides Hoedeman, 1951 Fr native   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Apistogramma caetei Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.60 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female  Known from the Apeú and Caete rivers in Bragança, Pará (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé in Bragança, Pará, Brazil, 1°45'S, 46°47'W (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma commbrae (Regan, 1906) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese)   3.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.50 cm TL female    
Cichlidae Apistogramma diplotaenia Kullander, 1987 Fr native    2.92 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm TL female  Type locality, est. Amazonas, R., Negro drainage system, , downstream of the R. Daraã, MZUSP 28213 (holotype of Apistogramma diplotaenia, 2.84 cm SL, male) (Ref. 86447). Known from the Amazon River basin, in the middle Negro River (Ref. 36377). Found throughout the Anavilhanas Archipelago in the Rio Negro where fishing is now forbidden (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma elizabethae Kullander, 1980 Fr native    4.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.00 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Uaupés River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Affluent of Rio Uaupés at Trovao, ca. 20 km from mouth of Uaupés, 0°02'N, 67°26'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma erythrura Staeck & Schindler, 2008 Fr introduced    4.34 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Apistogramma eunotus Kullander, 1981 Fr native   5.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma geisleri Meinken, 1971 Fr native    2.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the region of the lower Trombetas River basin (Ref. 36377). Belem do Para, near where these fish can be found, was a major fish exporting point in the 1950's and large quantities of these fish were exported but never spawned because the females were separated as another species and these fish were shipped with the females of still another species (Ref. 12251). Type locality: Rio Curuçamba near Obidos, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma gephyra Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female  Known from the lower Negro River basin, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Igarapé affluent of Rio Negro, Archipel das Anavilhanas, 3°00'S, 60°45'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma gibbiceps Meinken, 1969 Fr endemic   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from Branco and middle Negro River basins in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Negro, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma gossei Kullander, 1982 Fr native    4.40 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Oyapock River (Ref. 12251, 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma hippolytae Kullander, 1982 Fr endemic    3.40 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin, middle Negro River drainage (near mouths of Urubaxi and Daraã rivers), and Lake Manacapuru (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé des Lago Manacapuru, Rio Solimoes system, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma inconspicua Kullander, 1983 Fr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female   
Cichlidae Apistogramma juruensis Kullander, 1986 Fr endemic    2.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Juruá River basin, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma kullanderi Varella & Sabaj Pérez, 2014 Fr native   7.97 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.87 cm SL female  Found only in the from the upper rio Curuá and two of its larger tributaries on Serra do Cachimbo, an isolated plateau of the Brazilian (Guaporé) Shield (Ref. 98797). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma linkei Koslowski, 1985 Fr native    3.90 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female    
Cichlidae Apistogramma meinkeni Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm female  Known from the Uaupés River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Affluent of Rio Uaupés at Trovao, ca. 20 km from mouth of Uaupés, 0°02'N, 67°26'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma mendezi Römer, 1994 Fr endemic     Known from the Negro River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Small igarapé (forest stream) near airfield of Barcelos do Rio Negro, Dept. Amazonas, Brazil (aprox. 63.04’W/0.01’S), sometimes called "Rio Salgádo" by local people. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma moae Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the upper Juruá River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma paucisquamis Kullander & Staeck, 1988 Fr endemic   3.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the middle and lower Negro River from Daraã River to the Anavilhanas Archipelago (Ref. 36377). Type locality: small shallow bay on the right bank of Rio Negro, Anavilhanas Is., MZUSP 36952 (holotype of Apistogramma paucisquamis, 2.97 cm SL, adult male) (Ref. 58483). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma personata Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    5.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Uaupés River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Uaupés, Assai, 0°02'N, 67°27'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma pertensis (Haseman, 1911) Fr, Or endemic  Pertense (Portuguese)   3.90 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm TL female  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Negro River and from Manacapuru to Monte Alegre along the Amazon-Solimões River (Ref. 36377). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma piauiensis Kullander, 1980 Fr native    2.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Parnaíba River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Lagoa Seca, ca. 1 km from camp on Rio Parnaiba at Barra do Longa, near Buriti dos Lopes, Brazil, 3°08'S, 41°54'W (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma pulchra Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Madeira River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Preto, affluent of Rio Candeias, 25 km from Porto-Velho, Rondonia Terr., Brazil, 8°46'S, 63°45'W (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma regani Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic  Acarra (Portuguese)   4.90 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Negro River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé affluent of Rio Negro, Archipel das Anavilhanas, 3°00'S, 60°45'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Anavilhanas Archipelago is now a protected area where fishing is prohibited (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma resticulosa Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.87 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Madeira River drainage near Huamitá (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé Xicanga, ca. 5 km west of Humaitá, 7°31'S, 63°04'W, Rio Madeira drainage system, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma rupununi Fowler, 1914 Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Branco River of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma salpinction Kullander & Ferreira, 2005 Fr native    3.35 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Apistogramma staecki Koslowski, 1985 Fr native    2.10 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female  Known from Mato Grosso (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma taeniata (Günther, 1862) Fr endemic   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Tapajós River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Cupai, 800 mi. from the sea, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma trifasciata (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903) Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.60 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin in the middle Guaporé drainage and from the Paraná River basin in the Paraguay River drainage (Ref. 36377). Found in Mato Grosso area (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma tucurui Staeck, 2003 Fr native     Known from basin of the lower Rio Tocantins in Pará (Ref. 55839). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma uaupesi Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    2.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.00 cm TL female  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Uaupés River and nearby Negro River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Affluent of Rio Uaupés at Trovao, ca. 20 km from mouth of Uaupés, 0°02'N, 67°26'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma wapisana Römer, Hahn & Conrad, 2006 Fr native   2.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.91 cm SL female  Found in north-west Brazi. Known from the drainage of the upper Rio Branco in the vicinity of the town of Boa Vista Caught in flowing waters, specifically the Igarapés luciniu and Agua Boa, and the Rio Cauamé; also in central Rio Negro drainae in the vicinity of Barcellos do Rio Negro (Ref. 57916). 
Loricariidae Apistoloricaria laani Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1988 Fr native    13.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Loricariidae Apistoloricaria ommation Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1988 Fr native    9.80 cm SL male/unsexed   
Trichomycteridae Apomatoceros alleni Eigenmann, 1922 Fr native    14.60 cm SL male/unsexed   
Apteronotidae Apteronotus acidops Triques, 2011 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese), Boca rachada (Portuguese)  32.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper rio Paraná basin (Ref. 88927). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766) Fr native  Itoui cavalo (Portuguese), Ituí cavalo (Portuguese)   50.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Paraná, Paraguay (Ref. 4537) and Machado River basins (Ref. 97589). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native  Sarrapu (Portuguese), Soia (Portuguese)   27.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus brasiliensis (Reinhardt, 1852) Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)   29.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Das Velhas River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus camposdapazi de Santana & Lehmann A., 2006 Fr native    Known from the Rio Tocantins basin in Goiás State (Ref. 57702). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus caudimaculosus de Santana, 2003 Fr native    28.68 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Novo in the middle Rio Negro and from Rio do Peixe in the upper Rio Negro, Paraguay River basin in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Pantanal wetland, western Brazil (Ref. 50581). Type locality: Mato Grosso do Sul. AQUARAP Pantanal 19°36.4'S, 56°24.87'W, Aquidauna, Rio Novo, Brejo de Santa Sofia (Ref. 50581). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus ellisi (Alonso de Arámburu, 1957) Fr questionable    32.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Outside distributional range, occurrence needs confirmation. 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus leptorhynchus (Ellis, 1912) Fr native   26.90 cm TL male/unsexed   
Apteronotidae Apteronotus lindalvae de Santana & Cox Fernandes, 2012 Fr native   33.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Uatumã, at Cachoeiras (waterfalls) do Mirití and Morena in the Amazon basin (Ref. 91045). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus macrolepis (Steindachner, 1881) Fr native   18.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima agassizii (Valenciennes, 1847) Fr native    Found in lowlands of Amazon (Ref. 93668). 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) Fr, Fi, Rstr native  Bodeco (Portuguese), Pira urucu (Portuguese), Pirarucu (Portuguese), Pirarucú (Portuguese), Pirarucu preto (Portuguese), Pirarucu vermelho (Portuguese), Pirosca (Portuguese)   450 cm TL male/unsexed 120 TL Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 50891). Much appreciated food fish. Overfished in 1998. Catch prohibited from November to March (Ref. 27548). Also Ref. 1739. 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima leptosoma Stewart, 2013 Fr native   77.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Solimões River in Amazonas State (Ref. 94273). 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima mapae (Valenciennes, 1847) Fr native   203 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the Lago do Amapá in Amapá State (Ref. 94273). 
Sternopygidae Archolaemus blax Korringa, 1970 Fr native    43.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon, Tocantins and Branco River basins and Amapa State (Ref. 39524). 
Sternopygidae Archolaemus ferreirai Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012 Fr native   34.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the north-eastern portions of the Amazon basin in the Rio Mucajaí at Cachoeira Paredão 2 and the Rio Uraricoera at Ilha de Maracá, both in Roraima (Ref. 93148). 
Sternopygidae Archolaemus janeae Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012 Fr native   40.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper and lower portions of the Rio Xingu basin at the Rio Iriri, the Cachoeira de Kaituká at Município de Altamira, and localities in the Rio Culuene, as well as the upper Rio Tapajós basin, where it was collected in the Rio Jamanxim at the Município do Novo Progresso (Ref. 93148). 
Sternopygidae Archolaemus luciae Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012 Fr native   49.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Jari, Rio Trombetas and Rio Tapajós basins in eastern Amazon and Rio Araguari (Ref. 93148). 
Sternopygidae Archolaemus orientalis Stewart, Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012 Fr native    Known from the upper Rio São Francisco basin in Minas Gerais (Ref. 93148). 
Sternopygidae Archolaemus santosi Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012 Fr native   21.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Jamari, Amazon basin in Rondônia (Ref. 93148). 
Hemiodontidae Argonectes longiceps (Kner, 1858) Fr native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), O-Oií-Apotira (Portuguese), Uiarana (Portuguese), Voador (Portuguese), Voador americano (Portuguese)   24.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Icanno, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Hemiodontidae Argonectes robertsi Langeani, 1999 Fr native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), Uiarana (Portuguese)   35.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós, Xingu, Tocantins, and Capim River basins (Ref. 38289). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras albater Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   3.56 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Tocantins and its tributaries (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras belenos Britto, 1998 Fr native   2.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Rio das Mortes basin, Araguaia river system. Museum: Estado do Mato Grosso, creek at Primavera do Leste, MNRJ 12433 (holotype, 27.8 mm SL, female) (Ref. 30407). Also Ref. 37395, 44774. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras brunneus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   2.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Araguaia River basin (Ref. 37395). Found in Serra do Roncador, Mato Grosso (Ref. 26041); rio Xingú system (Ref. 44774). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras carvalhoi Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   2.54 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Acude Canabrava in Guaramiranga, Ceara (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras depinnai Britto, 2000 Fr native    3.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Ipojuca River basin (Ref. 37395). Type locality, rio Ipojuca basin (an isolated NE coastal drainage), creek at Amaraji-Primavera road, Pernambuco State (Ref. 44774). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras eurycephalus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Tocantins River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from Corrego Vermelho in Rio das Almas, a tributary of the Rio Maranhao, Estado Goias (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras fuscoguttatus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from Corrego Corguinho, Estradas da Tres Lagoas, Mato Grosso (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras gabrieli Wosiacki, Graças Pereira & Reis, 2014 Fr native   3.66 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in streams draining the Serra dos Carajás, Paraupebas, Pará, at the type locality and nearby points, in unnamed tributaries to the left bank of Rio Paraupebas, itself a tributary to the Rio Itacaiúnas, lower Rio Tocantins basin. Occurs in the lower portion of the Rio Tocantins basin, at the edge of the Brazilian Shield into the Amazon basin (Ref. 96502). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras lakoi Miranda Ribeiro, 1949 Fr native    4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from Fazenda da Cachoeira, Minas Gerais (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras maculosus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   3.37 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Paiaia which flows into the headwaters of the Rio Itapicuru in Bahia (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras marianae Leão, Britto & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr endemic    2.85 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from its type locality, an unnamed stream tributary of the Rio Curuá, itself a tributary of the Rio Iriri, in the Rio Xingu basin (Ref. 114781). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras menezesi Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   4.18 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal rivers in Ceará (Ref. 37395). Recorded from the Rio Granjeiro at Crato, Estado Goias (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras microgalaeus Britto, 1998 Fr native   3.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Xingú basin (Ref. 30407). Museum: Estado do Mato Grosso, small tributary of rio Culuene, km 86 of Paranatinga- Canarana road, rio Xingú basin, MZUSP 51209 (holotype, female, 25.7 mm SL) (Ref. 30407). Also Ref. 37395, 44774. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras pauciradiatus (Weitzman & Nijssen, 1970) Fr, Or native   2.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Araguaia at Aruana and Rio Negro (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395, 44774. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras poecilus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   3.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Xingu, Araguaia, and Tocantins River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from the Rio Xingu in Mato Grosso (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras psammatides Britto, Lima & Santos, 2005 Fr native   3.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from tributaries of the upper rio Paraguaçu, a coastal river basin from eastern Brazil (Ref. 57143). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras raimundi (Steindachner, 1907) Fr native    3.26 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Parnaíba River basin (Ref. 37395). Also Ref. 26041. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras rochai Ihering, 1907 Fr native  Comboeiro (Portuguese), Dunda (Portuguese)  4.42 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Fortaleza, Estado Ceara (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras spilotus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   4.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Riacho dos Macacos, a tributary of the Rio Acarau, Estado Ceara (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras taurus Lima & Britto, 2001 Fr native   5.41 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.21 cm SL female  Type locality, rio Paraguai system, rio Itiquira, close to highway BR-364, Fazenda Cabeceira do Itiquira, município de Alto Garças. Known from the upper rio Itiquira and upper rio Taquari, both are tributaries of the rio Paraguai, Mato Grosso State (Ref. 41106). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras velites Britto, Lima & Moreira, 2002 Fr native   2.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in small tributaries of the upper Araguaia River in Mato Grosso State (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Aspidoras virgulatus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1980 Fr native    3.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Parnahyba, Estado Maranhao (Ref. 26041). 
Ariidae Aspistor luniscutis (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr, Br, M native  Bagre amarelo (Portuguese), Bagre caiacoco (Portuguese), Bagre cangatá (Portuguese), Bagre guri (Portuguese), Bagre gurí (Portuguese), Bagre-amarelo (Portuguese), Bagre-de-areia (Portuguese), Caiacoco (Portuguese), Canagatá (Portuguese), Cangatá (Portuguese), Cangatã (Portuguese), Cangatá-í (Portuguese), Cangatã-í (Portuguese), Garajuba (Portuguese), Gorujuba (Portuguese), Griujuba (Portuguese), Grui-juba (Portuguese), Gruijuba (Portuguese), Guarijuba (Portuguese), Guorijuba (Portuguese), Guri-açu (Portuguese), Gurí-açu (Portuguese), Gurí-açú (Portuguese), Guri-juba (Portuguese), Gurí-juba (Portuguese), Guriaçu (Portuguese), Guribu (Portuguese), Gurijuba (Portuguese), Gurujuba (Portuguese), Gurujuva (Portuguese), Iriceca (Portuguese), Irideca (Portuguese), Jurupiranga (Portuguese), Tanajuba (Portuguese), Tanajura (Portuguese), Urí (Portuguese)  120 cm TL male/unsexed 18 TL Also Ref. 58022. 
Ariidae Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr, Br, M native  Bagre (Portuguese), Cangatá (Portuguese), Cangatã (Portuguese)  50.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Aspredinidae Aspredinichthys filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr, Br native   21.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in northern Brazil (Ref. 5266). 
Aspredinidae Aspredinichthys tibicen (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr, Br native  Viola (Portuguese)  24.30 cm TL male/unsexed   
Aspredinidae Aspredo aspredo (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr, Br native  Viola (Portuguese)   38.30 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Asterophysus batrachus Kner, 1858 Fr native  Mamyacú (Portuguese), Mamyeacú (Portuguese)  25.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Marabitanos (Ref. 6868). 
Doradidae Astrodoras asterifrons (Kner, 1853) Fr native   8.11 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River, Jutahy, Teffé, Manaus, Porto do Moz, Serpa, Santarém, Maciél, Guaporé River, San Joaquín and Cupai River (Ref. 37054). Also Ref. 85809. 
Cichlidae Astronotus crassipinnis (Heckel, 1840) Fr, Fi native  Acará açu (Portuguese), Acará-açu (Portuguese), Apaiari (Portuguese), Cará-açu (Portuguese)   24.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin in the Paraguay drainage (Ref. 36377). Type locality: R. Paraguay, Villa Maria and Caiçara, R. Guapore near Matogrosso, Rio Negro, Rio Branco. Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Cichlidae Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831) Fr, Fi native  Corró-baiano (Portuguese), Acará-açu (Portuguese), Acará-grande (Portuguese), Acaraú-açu (Portuguese), Acaráuaçu (Portuguese), Apaiari (Portuguese), Apiari (Portuguese), Bola-de-ouro (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese), Cará pirosca (Portuguese), Cará-açu (Portuguese), Cará-boi (Portuguese), Cará-grande (Portuguese), Corró-chinês (Portuguese), Dorminhoco (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 45.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Recorded in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). Considered economically important by the Brazilians who have acclimated the originally Amazonian stocks to the conditions of the province in the northeast (Ref. 27188). 
Characidae Astyanacinus moorii (Boulenger, 1892) Fr native   10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Astyanax abramis (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Acará-pixuma (Portuguese), Acará pixuna (Portuguese), Lambari (Portuguese)   14.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Characidae Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 Fr native    16.40 cm TL male/unsexed 3.65 Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 53011). Recorded from the rio Iguaçu basin (Ref. 81203). 
Characidae Astyanax argyrimarginatus Garutti, 1999 Fr native   4.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Astyanax asuncionensis Géry, 1972 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   15.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Characidae Astyanax bagual Bertaco & Vigo, 2015 Fr native   7.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio Taquari- Antas basin, rio Jacuí drainage, laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul State. Appears to inhabit only in rivers from mid-slope valleys and in the plateau sections of the Taquari-Antas basin (Ref. 103251). Status of threat: Least concern (LC) as there is no imminent known threats to the species (Ref. 103251). 
Characidae Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr, Br, Fi native  Machadinha (Portuguese), Lambari (Portuguese), Lambari do rabo amarelo (Portuguese), Matupiri (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese), Piaba chata (Portuguese), Piaba do rabo amarelo (Portuguese), Piaba-rabo-amarelo (Portuguese), Piava chata (Portuguese), Tambiú (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 17.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Pardo River (Ref. 27745), Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, tributaries of the Paraná river; Pircacicaba river (Ref. 50076), Rio Jurúa (lakes and tributaries) (MZUSP No. 50281, Ref. 42843) and the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). Found in the Uruguay (Ref. 79585) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Also Ref. 31923. 
Characidae Astyanax biotae Castro & Vari, 2004 Fr native    5.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Paranapanema basin, upper Rio Paraná system in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 55832). 
Characidae Astyanax bourgeti Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native    Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Astyanax brachypterygium Bertaco & Malabarba, 2001 Fr native   6.42 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the uppermost headwaters of tributaries of the rio Uruguai, at altitudes of 1000 to 1200 m asl, in the highest portions of the Serra Geral, in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 41290). 
Characidae Astyanax brevirhinus Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native   10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Jequitinhonha River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Astyanax clavitaeniatus Garutti, 2003 Fr native   7.24 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Branco, affluent of rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ref. 55833). 
Characidae Astyanax courensis Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep, 2010 Fr native   7.16 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, rio dos Couros at Parque Portal da Chapada, tributary of rio Tocantinzinho, upper rio Tocantins basin, 1135 m a.s.l, Alto Paraíso de Goiás, Goiás State, UFRGS 11499 (holotype of Astyanax courensis, 5.42 cm SL, female) (Ref. 84461). 
Characidae Astyanax cremnobates Bertaco & Malabarba, 2001 Fr endemic   8.91 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the uppermost headwaters of the rio Jacuí and rio Maquiné, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 41290). 
Characidae Astyanax depressirostris Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 Fr native    Known from Ribeira River, São Paulo (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Astyanax dissimilis Garavello & Sampaio, 2010 Fr native    13.58 cm SL male/unsexed  Rio Canoinhas, tributary of Rio Iguaçu near the bridge on highway BR 280 from Mafra to Itaiópolis, Canoinhas, Santa Catarina, MZUSP 105969 (holotype of Astyanax dissimilis, 6.28 cm Sl, male). It is known only from Iguaçu basin with wide distribution (Ref. 85756). 
Characidae Astyanax dnophos Lima & Zuanon, 2004 Fr native   3.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower rio Xingu in Pará (Ref. 55826). 
Characidae Astyanax douradilho Bertaco, 2014 Fr native   9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the rio Maquiné, rio Tramandaí system, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil (Ref. 96006). 
Characidae Astyanax elachylepis Bertaco & Lucinda, 2005 Fr native    Known from the rio Tocantins drainage (Ref. 56789). 
Characidae Astyanax epiagos Zanata & Camelier, 2008 Fr native   5.93 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Astyanax eremus Ingenito & Duboc, 2014 Fr native   9.95 cm SL male/unsexed 6.18 SL Known from the rio Canivete, a small and short isolated affluent of the upper rio Iguaçu, a tributary to the rio Paraná drainage (Ref. 96865). 
Characidae Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native    Known from Goyaz. 
Characidae Astyanax goyanensis (Miranda Ribeiro, 1944) Fr native   9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Goiás State, rio dos Couros, Chapada dos Veadeiros, MNRJ 4129 (holotype of Astyanacinus goyanensis, 8.22 cm SL, female) (Ref. 84461). 
Characidae Astyanax gracilior Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native    Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Obidos and Villa Bella, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Astyanax guaricana Oliveira, Abilhoa & Pavanelli, 2013 Fr native   9.56 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the rio Cubatão, coastal basin of Paraná State (Ref. 93808). 
Characidae Astyanax gymnodontus (Eigenmann, 1911) Fr endemic  Lambari (Portuguese)   17.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the Iguaçu River basin in southern Brazil (Ref. 86650). Also Ref. 598, 38376. 
Characidae Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup, 2006 Fr native   11.10 cm SL male/unsexed 6.9 SL Type locality, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, ZMB 7479 (holotype of Tetragonopterus aeneus Hensel 1870, male, 7.8 cm SL). Known from the rio dos Sinos and rio Taquari drainages in Southern Brazil. Both rivers are tributaries of the lago Guaíba which is located next to the city of Porto Alegre, and is the northernmost component of the laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 56653). 
Characidae Astyanax jacobinae Zanata & Camelier, 2008 Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese)  5.08 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope, 1894) Fr native  Lambari do rabo amarelo (Portuguese)  14.48 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Jacuhy, Rio Grande do Sul, ANSP 21912 (lectotype) (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Astyanax jenynsii (Steindachner, 1877) Fr native   7.62 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Astyanax joaovitori Oliveira, Pavanelli & Bertaco, 2017 Fr native   7.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the upper rio Araguaia and some tributaries, Mato Grosso State (Ref. 116165). 
Characidae Astyanax jordanensis Vera Alcaraz, Pavanelli & Bertaco, 2009 Fr native    7.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle and upper portions of rio Jacu and rio das Torres in the lower portions of the rio Jordão drainage, lower rio Iguaçu basin in Paraná (Ref. 81203). 
Characidae Astyanax keronolepis Silva, Malabarba & Malabarba, 2019 Fr native   10.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in coastal streams from Ubatuba in São Paulo State to Guapimirim River basin in Rio de Janeiro State (Ref. 119398) 
Characidae Astyanax kullanderi Costa, 1995 Fr native   8.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Estado de Mato Grosso, stream tributary of rio Perdidos, rio das Mortes drainage, MZUSP 45288 (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Astyanax lacustris (Lütken, 1875) Fr native  Tambiú (Portuguese)   9.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Trés Marias Dam - MG - São Francisco River (Ref. 85131). 
Characidae Astyanax laticeps (Cope, 1894) Fr native    8.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 54621). 
Characidae Astyanax leopoldi Géry, Planquette & Le Bail, 1988 Fr native   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Present in the Oyapock River which forms the border between French Guiana and Brazil (Ref. 12225). 
Characidae Astyanax lineatus (Perugia, 1891) Fr native   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Astyanax longirhinus Garavello & Sampaio, 2010 Fr native    18.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Iguaçu downstream of Salto Santiago dam, between Laranjeiras do Sul and Chopinzinho, Laranjeiras do Sul, Paraná, MZUSP 105954 (holotype of Astyanax longirhinus, 15.69 cm SL). Known only from medium and lower Iguaçu Basin (Ref. 85756). 
Characidae Astyanax maculisquamis Garutti & Britski, 1997 Fr native   7.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Guaporé (Ref. 38376) and Machado River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Astyanax microschemos Bertaco & Lucena, 2006 Fr native   5.51 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Espírito Santo, Iúna, rio Itapemirim drainage, córrego Palmital. MCP 37569 (holotype of Astyanax microschemos, 5.51 cm SL). Found only in the upper most headwaters of the rio Itapemirim drainage, a coastal drainage in Espirito Santo State, eastern Brazil (Ref. 57404). 
Characidae Astyanax minor Garavello & Sampaio, 2010 Fr native    10.82 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from upper Iguaçu basin, found mostly in localities situated upstream of confluence with Rio Jordão. Type locality, Rio Iguaçu downstream of Salto Santiago dam, between Laranjeiras do Sul and Chopinzinho, Laranjeiras do Sul, Paraná, MZUSP 105954 (holotype of Astyanax longirhinus, 15.69 cm SL) (Ref. 85756). 
Characidae Astyanax novae Eigenmann, 1911 Fr native    3.31 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Tocantins basin, Estreito, Maranhão (Ref. 96859). 
Characidae Astyanax obscurus (Hensel, 1870) Fr native    Found in the Laguna dos Patos drainage (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Astyanax paranahybae Eigenmann, 1911 Fr native    Found in the Paraná River basin (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Rio Paranahyba, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Astyanax pedri (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   7.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Santo Antônio River basin in the upper Doce River drainage (Ref. 48602). Recorded from Mina Gerais R(ef. 598). 
Characidae Astyanax pirabitira Lucena, Bertaco & Berbigier, 2013 Fr native   9.09 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper rio das Antas drainage, laguna dos Patos system, and upper rio Pelotas basin, rio Uruguay drainage in southern Brazil (Ref. 94017). 
Characidae Astyanax pirapuan Tagliacollo, Britzke, Silva & Benine, 2011 Fr native    Found in the tributaries of the Rio Aricá-Mirim, Rio Cuiabá basin in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State (Ref. 86404). 
Characidae Astyanax poetzschkei Ahl, 1932 Fr native     
Characidae Astyanax procerus Lucena, Castro & Bertaco, 2013 Fr native   11.85 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper and middle rio Taquari-Antas and rio Jacuí, laguna dos Patos system in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 94153). 
Characidae Astyanax saltor Travassos, 1960 Fr native   5.90 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese), Piaba dos pirangueiros (Portuguese), Piaba sulana (Portuguese)   7.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Pardo River (Ref. 27745), Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, tributaries of the Paraná river. 
Characidae Astyanax serratus Garavello & Sampaio, 2010 Fr native    12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio da Várzea, Agudos do Sul, Paraná, MHNCI 12346 (holotype of Astyanax serratus, 8.6 cm SL). This is known only from Rio Iguaçu where it is widely distributed (Ref. 85756). 
Characidae Astyanax stilbe (Cope, 1870) Fr native    Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Pará. 
Characidae Astyanax symmetricus Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native    Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Rio Solimões at Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Astyanax totae Ferreira Haluch & Abilhoa, 2005 Fr native   8.19 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from rio Cascata, tributary of rio Tortuoso, an affluent of the rio Iguaçu basin in Paraná State (Ref. 56783). 
Characidae Astyanax trierythropterus Godoy, 1970 Fr native  Lambari de nadadeiras vermelhas (Portuguese)    Found in the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Cachoeira de Emas, Rio Mogi Guassu, Upper Rio Paraná basin, São Paulo State, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Astyanax turmalinensis Triques, Vono & Caiafa, 2003 Fr native    6.48 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Jequitinhonha basin in Minas Gerais (Ref. 52302). Also reported in São Francisco and the Doce river basins in Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (Ref. 85857). Also Ref. 81202. 
Characidae Astyanax unitaeniatus Garutti, 1998 Fr native    Found in Paraná River basin in the upper Tocantins River drainage (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Astyanax utiariti Bertaco & Garutti, 2007 Fr native   7.93 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in rio Papagaio, a tributary of the upper rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós drainage in Mato Grosso (Ref. 75035). 
Characidae Astyanax varzeae Abilhoa & Duboc, 2007 Fr native   8.31 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the rio da Várzea headwaters, an affluent of rio Negro, a tributary of the upper portions of the rio Iguaçu in Paraná State (Ref. 72395). 
Characidae Astyanax vermilion Zanata & Camelier, 2009 Fr native    4.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in rio Salgado, a tributary of rio Cachoeira, and in rio Almada in eastern Brazil. 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus depressus (Costa, 1991) Fr endemic   6.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus guanabarensis Costa, 2014 Fr native   3.53 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.14 cm SL female  Known from various river drainages flowing into the Guanabara bay, and adjacent coastal plains to west, including the Jacarepaguá lagoon system, Rio de Janeiro state, south-eastern Brazil (Ref. 102354). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus haraldsiolii (Berkenkamp, 1984) Fr endemic   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus janeiroensis (Costa, 1991) Fr endemic   6.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus jurubatibensis (Costa, 2008) Fr native   2.57 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.56 cm SL female 1.8 SL Type locality, freshwater swampy coastal area close to Lagoa do Pires, about 100 m from the beach, in the Parque Nacional de Jurubatiba, Município de Quissamã, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ 6611 (holotype of Rivulus jurubatibensis, 2.37 cm SL, male) (Ref. 78703). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus lazzarotoi (Costa, 2007) Fr native    Known from Jurumirim River basin in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 58743). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus luelingi (Seegers, 1984) Fr endemic   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus maricensis Costa, 2014 Fr, Thr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the river drainages connected to the Maricá lagoon system, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. Collected first in December 1980 in the Itapeteiú creek, near the point where it flows into the Ubatiba river. In recent years, the area between the Itapeteiú creek and Ubatiba river underwent heavy modification by intense stream bottom sediment extraction and stream bank deforestation, making most fish species of the area extinct. Considered a critically endangered species (Ref. 102354). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus nudiventris (Costa & Brasil, 1991) Fr endemic   4.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Itapemerim River floodplains (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus paranaguensis Costa, 2014 Fr native   4.39 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.58 cm SL female  Found in small river basins flowing into the Paranaguá bay (Ref. 102354). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus ribeirensis Costa, 2014 Fr native   2.88 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.38 cm SL female  Found in shallow streams, 10 cm deep or less, within or close to dense forests of the Ribeira de Iguape river basin (Ref. 102354). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus riograndensis (Costa & Lanés, 2009) Fr native    3.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Patos lagoon basin and adjacent coastal plains in southern (Ref. 81223). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus santensis (Köhler, 1906) Fr endemic  Rívulo (Portuguese)  6.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus simplicis (Costa, 2004) Fr native   3.46 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Parati, coastal plains of southeastern Brazil (Ref. 55777). Type locality, Swamp near Jabaquara beach, 23°12'26.7"S, 44°43'12.9"W, Parati, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, elev. 23 m (Ref. 54621). 
Rivulidae Atlantirivulus unaensis (Costa & De Luca, 2009) Fr native    Known from Una, Bahia in eastern Brazil (Ref. 81222). 
Characidae Atopomesus pachyodus Myers, 1927 Fr native   4.30 cm male/unsexed  Found in the Negro River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Günther, 1864) Fr native    22.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin. Type locality, River Capim, Pará (Ref. 37098). Also Ref. 6868. 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterichthys punctatus (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr native  Carawatouí (Portuguese)  15.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known frm the central parts of the Amazon basin in Brazil. Most specimens were taken from Rio Negro and its tributaries (Ref. 26666). 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterichthys thoracatus (Kner, 1858) Fr native    13.80 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus ambyiacus Fowler, 1915 Fr native    24.40 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus brachyurus (Cope, 1878) Fr native    16.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37098). 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus britskii Ferraris & Vari, 1999 Fr native    14.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37098). Museum: Lago Janauacá, vicinity of Rio Solimões (approx. 3°28'S, 60°17'W), Amazonas, MZUSP 48358 (Ref. 35558). 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus fordicei Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 Fr native   9.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37098). 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus menezesi Ferraris & Vari, 1999 Fr native  Peixe-gato (Portuguese)   13.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Parnaíba and Pindaré-Mirim River basins of Maranhão and Piaui States (Ref. 37098). Museum: Lago de Viana, Rio Pindaré. Mirim basin, Maranhão, MZUSP 43591 (Ref. 35558). 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus nigripinnis (Boulenger, 1895) Fr native  Hocicón (Portuguese), Bagre-sapo (Portuguese), Palmitinho (Portuguese), Palmito (Portuguese)   20.20 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) Fr, Fi native  Mandi peruano (Portuguese), Carataí (Portuguese), Gato (Portuguese), Lustrosa (Portuguese), Lustrosa de lago (Portuguese), Luz-baixa (Portuguese), Mampará legítimo (Portuguese), Mandi (Portuguese), Mandí sardinha (Portuguese), Mandubi (Portuguese), Mantegueiro (Portuguese), Mapará (Portuguese), Olho-de-gato (Portuguese), Peixe-gato (Portuguese), Surumanha (Portuguese) common (usually seen) 27.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Common in the lower courses of large rivers (Ref. 6868). Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Auchenipteridae Auchenipterus osteomystax (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918) Fr native  Palmitinho (Portuguese)   39.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;43.00 cm TL female 14.7 TL   
Cichlidae Australoheros acaroides (Hensel, 1870) Fr native   12.01 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Australoheros angiru Říčan, Piálek, Almirón & Casciotta, 2011 Fr native    7.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Santa Catarina State, rio Uruguai drainage, rio Jacutinga, road BR 283 from Ceará to Concordia, MCP 13937 (holotype of Australoheros angiru, 7.32 cm SL). Has a disjunct distribution in the rio Iguaçu and in the upper rio Uruguai (Ref. 87600). 
Cichlidae Australoheros autochthon (Günther, 1862) Fr native     
Cichlidae Australoheros autrani Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native   7.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio São João basin, Silva Jardim, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros barbosae Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native   9.62 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Preto, rio Paraíba do Sul basin in Minas Gerais (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros capixaba Ottoni, 2010 Fr native    5.74 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Australoheros charrua Říčan & Kullander, 2008 Fr native   7.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Uruguai drainage, road from Pirapo to São Nicolau, Arroyo Canoin, Rio Grande do Sul, MCP 13938 (holotype of Australoheros charrua, 7.79 cm SL) (Ref. 74689). 
Cichlidae Australoheros facetus (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Acará camaleão (Portuguese), Acará cascudo (Portuguese), Chanchito (Portuguese), Papaterra (Portuguese)   19.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal drainages of the Rio Grande do Sul State (Ref. 74689). Reported from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Cichlidae Australoheros forquilha Říčan & Kullander, 2008 Fr native   11.04 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Forquilha, Rio Uruguai drainage, road from Maximiliano de Almeida to Machadinho, MCP 13936 (holotype of Australoheros forquilha, 11.04 cm SL, male) (Ref. 74689). 
Cichlidae Australoheros ipatinguensis Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr endemic    5.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Doce basin in Minas Gerais State (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros kaaygua Casciotta, Almirón & Gómez, 2006 Fr native   9.40 cm SL female  Known from a tributary of Río Paraná and tributaries of the Upper Rio Uruguay (Ref. 74689). 
Cichlidae Australoheros macacuensis Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native   8.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Macacu basin, Cachoeiras de Macacu and Guapimirim in Estado do Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros macaensis Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native   7.37 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Macaé basin in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros mattosi Ottoni, 2012 Fr native   8.04 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Paraopeba and rio das Velhas drainages, rio São Francisco basin in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 89866). 
Cichlidae Australoheros minuano Říčan & Kullander, 2008 Fr native   8.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Grande do Sul, Arroyo Canoin, Rio Uruguai drainage, road from Pirapo to São Nicolau, MCP 12710 (holotype of Australoheros minuano, 7.08 cm SL). Known from the Middle and Lower Rio Uruguay (Ref. 74689). 
Cichlidae Australoheros montanus Ottoni, 2012 Fr native   10.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Paquequer drainage, rio Paraíba do Sul basin in Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 89866). 
Cichlidae Australoheros muriae Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native    12.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Muriaé basin, rio Paraíba do Sul basin in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros paraibae Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native   6.11 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio do Peixe, rio Paraíba do Sul basin in Município de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros perdi Ottoni, Lezama, Triques, Fragoso-Moura, Lucas & Barbosa, 2011 Fr native   16.70 cm TL male/unsexed 7.2 TL Found only in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD), lacustrine region of the middle Doce River basin, Doce River Valley in Marliéria municipality, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 87295). 
Cichlidae Australoheros ribeirae Ottoni, Oyakawa & Costa, 2008 Fr endemic    7.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from rio Ribeira do Iguape basin in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 75696). 
Cichlidae Australoheros robustus Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native   7.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Córrego da Areia, rio Paraíba do Sul basin in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros sanguineus Ottoni, 2013 Fr native   10.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Cubatão basin in Joinville municipality, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil (Ref. 94124). 
Cichlidae Australoheros saquarema Ottoni & Costa, 2008 Fr native   8.03 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Mato Grosso basin, sistema lagoa de Saquarema in Estado do Rio de Janeiro, southeastern (Ref. 79631). 
Cichlidae Australoheros scitulus (Říčan & Kullander, 2003) Fr native   11.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the State of Rio Grande do Sul. 
Cichlidae Australoheros taura Ottoni & Cheffe, 2009 Fr native   12.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from upper rio das Antas basin, rio Jacuí drainage, Laguna dos Patos system in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 81913). 
Cichlidae Australoheros tavaresi Ottoni, 2012 Fr native   7.89 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper rio Tietê drainage, upper rio Paraná basin in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 89866). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias adloffi (Ahl, 1922) Fr native  Peixe anual (Portuguese)   4.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from lower rio Jacuí-Guaíba basin, including lower rio Gravataí, rio dos Sinos and rio Caí drainages, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 44045). Also Ref. 27139, 36579. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias affinis (Amato, 1986) Fr questionable  Peixe anual (Portuguese)   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Outside distributional range, occurrence needs confirmation. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias alexandri (Castello & López, 1974) Fr native  Peixe anual (Portuguese)   9.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias araucarianus Costa, 2014 Fr native   3.52 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.09 cm SL female  Knonw from a single collection in a seasonal swamp close to the road BR-476, between the town São Mateus do sul and the village of Paulo Frontin, Paraná (Ref. 97355). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias bagual Volcan, Lanés & Gonçalves, 2014 Fr endemic   3.93 cm SL male/unsexed  Currently known only for type locality, in the Encruzilhada do Sul municipality; from a small temporary pond, altitude of 46 m, associated with the floodplain of the Arroio Abranjo, in the middle course of the Rio Camaquã basin, Laguna dos Patos system, in flat areas surrounded by hills in geomorphological units of the Crystalline Shield of the Rio Grande do Sul State (Ref. 118216). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias carvalhoi (Myers, 1947) Fr endemic  scarce (very unlikely) 3.73 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.81 cm SL female  Known from the Paraná River basin (Ref. 36579). Found in temporary pool at União da Vitoria, Estado do Paraná (Ref. 51692). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias charrua Costa & Cheffe, 2001 Fr native    4.72 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.17 cm SL female  Known from Laguna dos Patos basin (Ref. 36579). Reccorded from coastal plains of southern Rio Grande do Sul adjacent to lagoa Mirim, between Curral Alto and Chuí (Ref. 44045). Museum: temporary pool close to arroio Chuí, road to Barra do Chuí, Rio Grande do Sul, MZUSP 60070 (holotype, male, 4.72 cm SL) (Ref. 44045). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias cyaneus (Amato, 1987) Fr native  Peixe anual (Portuguese)   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Jacuí River basin (Ref. 36579). Type locality, floodplains of Arroio Dom Marcos, Municipio de Río Pardo, Río Grande do Sul (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias gymnoventris (Amato, 1986) Fr questionable   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Not in Ref. 36579; occurrence needs verification. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias ibicuiensis (Costa, 1999) Fr native    5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36579). Museum: rio Ibicuí-Mirim, rio Ibicuí drainage, rio Uruguai basin, road BR-287, between São Pedro do Sul and Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, MCP 10201 (holotype) (Ref. 36604). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias jaegari Costa & Cheffe, 2002 Fr native   3.04 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Do Timba Swamp (banhado do Timba), Pelotas, Rio Grande do sul State (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias juanlangi Costa, Cheffe, Salvia & Litz, 2006 Fr native    Known from the dos Patos lagoon system (Ref. 57613). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias litzi Costa, 2006 Fr native    Known from the Dos Patos lagoon system and adjacent areas to the south (Ref. 57613). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias luteoflammulatus (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete, 1965) Fr native    4.50 cm TL male/unsexed    
Rivulidae Austrolebias melanoorus (Amato, 1986) Fr questionable   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 27139). Not in Ref. 36579, occurrence needs verification. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias minuano Costa & Cheffe, 2001 Fr native    4.65 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.11 cm SL female  Recorded from coastal plains near the southernmost end of lagoa dos Patos, between Quinta and Rio Grande, southern Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 44045). Museum: Temporary lagoon about 4.5 km N of Quinta, Rio Grande do Sul, MCP 28028 (holotype, male, 4.61 cm SL) (Ref. 44045). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias nachtigalli Costa & Cheffe, 2006 Fr native    Known from the dos Patos lagoon system and adjacent areas to the south (Ref. 57613). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias nigrofasciatus Costa & Cheffe, 2001 Fr native    5.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from localities along the inner coastal plains to lagoa Mirim, canal de São Gonçalo and tributaries, laguna dos Patos system, between Pelotas and Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 44045). Museum: Temporary pool in Pontal da Barra, praia, de Laranjal, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, MCP 21172 (holotype, male, 4.27 cm SL) (Ref. 44045). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias patriciae (Huber, 1995) Fr questionable   4.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Not in Ref. 36579; occurrence needs verification. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias paucisquama Ferrer dos Santos, Malabarba & Costa, 2008 Fr native   3.42 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.48 cm SL female  Known only from the type locality, a temporary pool in the rio Vacacaí drainage, rio Jacuí tributary, laguna dos Patos drainage (Ref. 76851). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias pelotapes Costa & Cheffe, 2017 Fr native   3.14 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.94 cm SL female  Occurs in temporary pools and swamps associated to small streams tributaries to the northern margin of the Canal de São Gonçalo, Patos-Mirim lagoon system, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 118050). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias periodicus (Costa, 1999) Fr native  Peixe anual (Portuguese)   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 57613. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias pongondo Costa & Cheffe, 2017 Fr native   4.09 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.71 cm SL female  Occurs only in temporary pools and swamps in the floodplains south of the São Gonçalo channel, Povo Novo, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul state (Ref. 118117). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias univentripinnis Costa & Cheffe, 2005 Fr native    Known from Jaguarão River floodplains, Mirim Lagoon basin in southern Brazil (Ref. 56780). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias varzeae Costa, Reis & Behr, 2004 Fr native   3.37 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from rio da Várzea floodplains, upper rio Uruguay basin in southern Brazil (Ref. 54764). 
Rivulidae Austrolebias vazferreirai (Berkenkamp, Etzel, Reichert & Salvia, 1994) Fr questionable   10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 27139). Not in Ref. 36579; occurrence needs verification. 
Rivulidae Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl, 1924) Fr native    10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Laguna dos Patos basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Gobiidae Awaous flavus (Valenciennes, 1837) Fr, Br native   8.20 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.62 cm SL female  Museum: Parà: freshwater stream in the vicinity of Belém, UMMZ 21377 (Ref. 26240). 
Gobiidae Awaous tajasica (Lichtenstein, 1822) Fr native    16.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Piaui southward to Santa Catarina. 
Characidae Axelrodia lindeae Géry, 1973 Fr native    2.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Curuçamba River on the lower Amazon basin and the middle Madeira River basin (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Axelrodia stigmatias (Fowler, 1913) Fr native    2.49 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Amazon River and middle Madeira River (Ref. 38376). 
Ariidae Bagre marinus (Mitchill, 1815) Fr, Br, M native  Bagre-de-penacho (Portuguese), Bagre bandeirado (Portuguese), Bagre-amarelo (Portuguese), Bagre-bandeira (Portuguese), Bagre-branco (Portuguese), Bagre-de-fita (Portuguese), Bagre-fita (Portuguese), Bagre-mandim (Portuguese), Bagre-mandin (Portuguese), Bagre-sari (Portuguese), Bandeira (Portuguese), Bandeirado (Portuguese), Bandim (Portuguese), Peixe fita (Portuguese), Pira-bandeira (Portuguese), Pirá-bandeira (Portuguese), Sarassara (Portuguese), Sarassará (Portuguese), Sargento (Portuguese), Sarí (Portuguese)   69.00 cm TL male/unsexed 33 FL   
Pimelodidae Bagropsis reinhardti Lütken, 1874 Fr, Thr endemic  Mandi-bagre (Portuguese), Bagre (Portuguese), Mandi bagre (Portuguese)   22.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Das Velhas River basin in São Francisco River drainage (Ref. 36506). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Type locality: Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Ref. 6868, 26282). 
Characidae Bario steindachneri (Eigenmann, 1893) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon (Ref. 38376) and Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). 
Loricariidae Baryancistrus chrysolomus Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Ribeiro de Oliveira, 2011 Fr native  Mango pleco (English), Aba laranja (Portuguese), Cascudo magnum (Portuguese)  29.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Found rio Xingu, in the area called Volta Grande do rio Xingu, immediately above Belo Monte falls and below Belo Monte village, and in rio Curuá, rio Iriri, the larger tributary of rio Xingu in Pará (Ref. 82796). 
Loricariidae Baryancistrus longipinnis (Kindle, 1895) Fr endemic   20.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Baryancistrus niveatus (Castelnau, 1855) Fr endemic    34.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Tocantins, Xingu, Tapajós and Trombetas River basins (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Baryancistrus xanthellus Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Ribeiro de Oliveira, 2011 Fr native  Golden nugget pleco (English), Amarelinho (Portuguese), Iriri golden nugget pleco (English), Cascudo pepita-de-ouro (Portuguese) common (usually seen) 29.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Volta Grande do rio Xingu, an area immediately above Belo Monte falls, and from rio Iriri, the larger tributary of rio Xingu (Ref. 87296). 
Pseudopimelodidae Batrochoglanis melanurus Shibatta & Pavanelli, 2005 Fr native   13.67 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the type locality, córrego Cancela, affluent of rio Cuiabá, rio Paraguai basin, State of Mato Grosso (Ref. 56694). 
Pseudopimelodidae Batrochoglanis raninus (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr native  Pacamao (Portuguese), Peixe sapo (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 2037. 
Pseudopimelodidae Batrochoglanis villosus (Eigenmann, 1912) Fr native  Magabeira (Portuguese)   14.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado (Ref. 97589), Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Belonidae Belonion apodion Collette, 1966 Fr native    5.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Belonidae Belonion dibranchodon Collette, 1966 Fr native   4.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 40653). 
Pimelodidae Bergiaria westermanni (Lütken, 1874) Fr native  Bagre chancho (Portuguese), Mandi (Portuguese), Mandi bicudo (Portuguese), Mandi pirá (Portuguese), Papa isca açu (Portuguese), Trompudo (Portuguese)   19.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Das Velhas River basin in São Francisco River drainage (Ref. 36506). Type locality: Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Osphronemidae Betta splendens Regan, 1910 Fr introduced  Combatente (Portuguese), Peixe de briga (Portuguese)   6.50 cm TL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Biotodoma cupido (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Acará salema (Portuguese)   11.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 4537. 
Cichlidae Biotodoma wavrini (Gosse, 1963) Fr native   10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Amazon River Basin (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 4537. 
Cichlidae Biotoecus opercularis (Steindachner, 1875) Fr endemic    10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Branco River, the middle and lower Negro River, Urubu River, Lake Saracá, Parintins, Lake Carauaçu, lower Trombetas River (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Lago Saraca and Amazon at Villa Bella, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Hemiodontidae Bivibranchia fowleri (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native    19.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Tocantins, Branco and Negro rivers (Ref. 598). Also found in Xingu, Tapajós and Madeira River basins (Ref. 38289). 
Hemiodontidae Bivibranchia notata Vari & Goulding, 1985 Fr native   7.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 38289). Museum: beach at Alter do Chao, Rio Tapajós, Pará, MZUSP 28657 (holotype of B. notata, 6.83 cm SL) (Ref. 30185). 
Hemiodontidae Bivibranchia simulata Géry, Planquette & Le Bail, 1991 Fr native   13.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Present in the Oyapock River which forms the border between Brazil and French Guiana (Ref. 12225). 
Hemiodontidae Bivibranchia velox (Eigenmann & Myers, 1927) Fr native    16.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Xingu and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 38289). Also Ref. 28819. 
Characidae Boehlkea fredcochui Géry, 1966 Fr native   5.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Boehlkea weitzmani Soares, Bertaco, Ito & Zuanon, 2017 Fr native   3.48 cm SL male/unsexed  Presently recorded only from streams of the rio Japurá basin, a left margin tributary of the rio Solimões basin in Amazonas State (Ref. 118101). 
Ctenoluciidae Boulengerella cuvieri (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) Fr native  Bicuda (Portuguese), Pirapoucou (Portuguese), Bicudo (Portuguese), Dente de cão (Portuguese), Pirapoco (Portuguese), Pirapucu (Portuguese), Ueua (Portuguese)   88.00 cm FL male/unsexed  Known from Piauí (Rio Parnahyba), Amapá (Rio Araguari, Rio Cupixi), Pará (Rio Capim and tributary streams, Rio Tocantins, Rio Itacaiunas, Rio Trombetas, Igarapé Sororoca, Furo de Panaquera, Cametá, Rio Tapajós, Rio Jamanxim, Rio Xingu), Amazonas (Rio Urubu, Rio Amazonas, Paraná do Urucará, Lago Saracá, Lago Manacapuru, Rio Negro, Rio Jauaperi, Igarapé Baré, Lago Amana, Rio Tefé, Rio Javari), Mato Grosso (Rio Juruena, Rio Xingu), Goiás (Rio Araguaia, Rio Paraná), Roraima (Rio Negro, Rio Branco, and Igarapé Grande, tributary to Rio Uraricoera) and Rondonia (Rio Sao Domingo and Rio Machado, Lago do Paraiso). 
Ctenoluciidae Boulengerella lateristriga (Boulenger, 1895) Fr native  Aicunga (Portuguese), Pirapocú (Portuguese)  25.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Amazonas: Manaos, Igarapé Tarumazinho and tributaries, sandbank at Brazilian-Colombian border (west bank of Río Negro at Cucuhy), Rio Arirará, Ilha Cumuru and Ilha Tamaquaré (Rio Negro), Rio Urubaxi, Rio Negro, and Rio Marauiá. 
Ctenoluciidae Boulengerella lucius (Cuvier, 1816) Fr native  Peixe agulha (Portuguese), Pirapoco (Portuguese), Pirapucu (Portuguese), Pirarucu (Portuguese)  42.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Amazonas (Rio Urubu, Lago Saracá, Rio Negro, Lago Puraquequara, Rio Marauiá), Pará (Rio Trombetas, mouth of Rio Cuminá-Miri, Río Tapajós and Igarapé tributary to Rio Jamari). 
Ctenoluciidae Boulengerella maculata (Valenciennes, 1850) Fr native  Ueua (Portuguese), Bicuda (Spanish), Uena (Spanish)   31.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pará (Rio Maicuru, Rio Trombetas, Rio Jamanxim, Rio Tocantins, Lagoas along margin of Rio Tocantins, Lagoa along margin of Igarapé Murú, Rio Tocantins above Tucuruí, and Rio Tapajós), Amazonas (Rio Urubu, Rio Amazonas, Rio Canuma, Igarapé do Rio Maués, Lago Januari, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Region of Manaus, Manacapuru, Lago Saracá, Rio Purus, Rio Tefé, Rio Marauía, Lago Janauaca, Rio Negro, Rio Jauaperi, mouth of Rio Japurá, Rio Livramento, Rio Javari, and Lago do Rei), Roraima (Rio Branco), Rondonia (Rio Machado), and Mato Grosso (Upper Rio Juruena). 
Ctenoluciidae Boulengerella xyrekes Vari, 1995 Fr native  Pirapoco (Portuguese)  38.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Amazonas (Rio Negro basin, Rio Jauaperi, Rio Tefé and Rio Javari drainage) and Pará (Oriximiná) (Ref. 13118). Also Ref. 27925. 
Characidae Brachychalcinus copei (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native  Machadinha (Portuguese)   8.29 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Characidae Brachychalcinus parnaibae Reis, 1989 Fr native    7.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Parnaiba River basin (Ref. 36891). Museum: Lagoas, Serra das Confusoes, Caracol, rio Panaiba system, Piaui, MZUSP 36594 (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Brachychalcinus reisi Garcia-Ayala, Ohara, Pastana & Benine, 2017 Fr native   6.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper rio Curuá, a left side tributary of the rio Iriri, at the Serra do Cachimbo, rio Xingu basin, southern Pará State (Ref. 118114). 
Characidae Brachychalcinus retrospina Boulenger, 1892 Fr native   6.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 36891). Type locality: Santa Cruz, Mato Grosso (Ref. 598). 
Heptapteridae Brachyglanis frenatus Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native   9.90 cm SL male/unsexed   
Heptapteridae Brachyglanis microphthalmus Bizerril, 1991 Fr endemic   6.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Trombetas River basin (Ref. 36914). Type locality: Igarapé Saracá of Lake Sapucuá, Rio Trombetas drainage, Pará, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Heptapteridae Brachyglanis nocturnus Myers, 1928 Fr endemic  Jandiá (Portuguese)  8.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Negro (Ref. 36914). Also Ref. 6868. 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus alberti Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  11.10 cm TL male/unsexed ;10.00 cm TL female  Known from the upper rio Madeira (Amazonas drainage) and rio Guaporé (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus arrayae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  16.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;13.30 cm TL female  Known from the upper Madeira River basin (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus batesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  12.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;12.10 cm TL female  Occurs in the central Amazon, near the main stem of the rio Solimões (Amazon), and in the upper rio Negro (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus beebei (Schultz, 1944) Fr native  Itui (Portuguese), Tuvira (Portuguese)   32.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Captured in the Oyapock River which forms the border between Brazil and French Guiana (Ref. 12225). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus belindae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  scarce (very unlikely) 11.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs only in the central Amazon River basin; from the type series near Tefé, Amazonas, and from a whitewater floodplain site near Manaus (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus bennetti Sullivan, Zuanon & Cox Fernandes, 2013 Fr native   23.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon basin (Ref. 94132). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus brevirostris (Steindachner, 1868) Fr native  Tuvira (Portuguese), Itui (Portuguese)   34.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Captured in the Oyapock River which forms the border between French Guiana and Brazil (Ref. 12225). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus bullocki Sullivan & Hopkins, 2009 Fr native    22.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Branco drainage (Ref. 81045). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus cunia Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  17.60 cm TL male/unsexed ;14.10 cm TL female  Occurs only in rio Madeira; from its lower reaches below its major series of falls and rapids as far downstream as a site near the town of Calamã, Rondônia (near the mouth of the rio Machado), and from sites above the major series of falls, along most of the length of the rio Guaporé (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus draco Giora, Malabarba & Crampton, 2008 Fr native    15.19 cm OT male/unsexed  Found in central, southern and coastal regions of Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 76853). Known from Laguna dos Patos, Rio Tramandaí, and Rio Uruguay drainages (Ref. 76853). Collected 6 km east from the city of Mostardas in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park (Ref. 85215). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus flavipomus Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  11.70 cm TL female  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus gauderio Giora & Malabarba, 2009 Fr native    14.90 cm SL male/unsexed    
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  12.50 cm TL male/unsexed ;9.70 cm TL female  Known from the Amazon River and Rio Negro (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus hendersoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  19.50 cm TL male/unsexed ;20.30 cm TL female  Known from central Amazon from blackwater ria lakes near Tefé and the lower Negro (Ref. 116763) 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus janeiroensis (Costa & Campos-da-Paz, 1992) Fr native   18.60 cm TL male/unsexed   
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus jureiae Triques & Khamis, 2003 Fr native  Tuvira (Portuguese), Sarapó (Portuguese)   Known from a tributary of Rio Una do Prelado, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean, State of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 55506). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus menezesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Tuvira (Portuguese)  11.90 cm TL male/unsexed ;11.20 cm TL female  Occurs in the middle and upper rio São Francisco drainage in Bahia and Minas Gerais (Ref. 116763). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hopkins, 1991) Fr, Fi native  Itui (Portuguese), Tuvira (Portuguese)   18.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Present in the Amazon basin (Ref. 12225). Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). 
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus regani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  15.60 cm TL male/unsexed ;14.10 cm TL female   
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus sullivani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017 Fr native   15.20 cm TL male/unsexed ;12.70 cm TL female   
Hypopomidae Brachyhypopomus walteri Sullivan, Zuanon & Cox Fernandes, 2013 Fr native   17.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon basin (Ref. 94132). 
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma capapretum Lundberg & Akama, 2005 Fr native    58.10 cm SL male/unsexed    
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein, 1819) Fr, Br, Fi native  Piriaba (Portuguese), Bagre amarelo (Portuguese), Bagre branco (Portuguese), Bandeirinha (Portuguese), Cadete (Portuguese), Chumbadinha (Portuguese), Dourada (Portuguese), Dourado (Portuguese), Filhote (Portuguese), Guirí (Portuguese), Jandiauva (Portuguese), Jandiáuva (Portuguese), Jundiáuva (Portuguese), Pirá-aíba (Portuguese), Pirahiba (Portuguese), Pirahiba pinimi (Portuguese), Piraiba (Portuguese), Piraíba (Portuguese), Piraíba aiua (Portuguese), Piraíba aiúa (Portuguese), Piraíba de pele (Portuguese), Piraíba grande (Portuguese), Piraíba ruim (Portuguese), Piramutaba (Portuguese), Piranambu (Portuguese), Piratinga (Portuguese), Urubarana (Portuguese)   360 cm TL male/unsexed    
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger, 1898) Fr, Fi native  Dourada zebra (Portuguese), Jundiá (Portuguese), Sorubim (Portuguese), Sorubim flamengo (Portuguese)   60.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma platynemum Boulenger, 1898 Fr, Fi native  Barbado (Portuguese), Babão (Portuguese), Bagre (Portuguese), Barba chata (Portuguese), Dourada-bandeira (Portuguese), Pintado (Portuguese), Surubim chicote (Portuguese)   100.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native  Dourada (Portuguese)   192 cm TL male/unsexed    
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Britski, 1981) Fr, Fi native  Sorubim (Portuguese), Zebra (Portuguese)   60.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36506). 
Pimelodidae Brachyplatystoma vaillantii (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr, Br, Fi native  Piramutaba (Portuguese), Barba chata (Portuguese), Branquinho (Portuguese), Madi (Portuguese), Mota (Portuguese), Mulher ingrata (Portuguese), Normalista (Portuguese), Piramuta (Portuguese), Piramutá (Portuguese), Piramutana (Portuguese), Piramutata (Portuguese), Piramutatá (Portuguese), Piramutaua (Portuguese), Piramutáua (Portuguese), Piramutuba (Portuguese), Sorubim (Portuguese)   150 cm TL male/unsexed  An important commercial fish in the Rio Madeira (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 5217. 
Heptapteridae Brachyrhamdia heteropleura (Eigenmann, 1912) Fr native   4.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Negro River (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Brachyrhamdia marthae Sands & Black, 1985 Fr native    7.60 cm SL male/unsexed    
Heptapteridae Brachyrhamdia meesi Sands & Black, 1985 Fr endemic   6.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36914). Type locality: near Belem, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Heptapteridae Brachyrhamdia rambarrani (Axelrod & Burgess, 1987) Fr endemic   5.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Unini River basin in the upper Negro River drainage (Ref. 36914). Type locality: Rio Unini, trib. of Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Characidae Brittanichthys axelrodi Géry, 1965 Fr native    2.81 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Bulufu Beach on the Rio Itu, ca. 80 km upstream from the meeting with Rio Negro, Brazil, ca. 0°30'S, 63°30'W. 
Characidae Brittanichthys myersi Géry, 1965 Fr native    3.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Negro, unnamed inlet on shore, ca. 13 km west of junction with Amazon, ca. 3°10'S, 59°55'W. 
Loricariidae Brochiloricaria macrodon (Kner, 1853) Fr native  Cascudo espada (Portuguese), Cascudo viola (Portuguese)   26.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 36389). Known from Rio Ciuabá (Ref. 6868). 
Bryconidae Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) Fr native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), Matrinchã (Portuguese), Piabanha (Portuguese), Pirabinha (Portuguese)   46.22 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River and its main tributaries (Ref. 38504). 
Bryconidae Brycon cephalus (Günther, 1869) Fr, Fi misidentification  Sábalo (Portuguese), Jatuarana (Portuguese), Matrinxa (Portuguese), Matrinxã (Portuguese)   45.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Reported from Santarém. Also Ref. 9131. Probably a misidentification (occurrence in this country not confirmed by F.C.T. Lima). 
Bryconidae Brycon devillei (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native  Piabanha (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 14.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Type locality, Bahia (Ref. 30296). Also Ref. 38504. 
Bryconidae Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, 1844 Fr native  Matrinchã (Portuguese), Jatuarana miri (Portuguese), Ladina (Portuguese), Mata gato (Portuguese), Matrichan (Portuguese), Matrinchão (Portuguese), Piabanha (Portuguese)   37.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Bryconidae Brycon ferox Steindachner, 1877 Fr endemic  Piabanha (Portuguese)   31.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Mucuri River basin (Ref. 38504). 
Bryconidae Brycon gouldingi Lima, 2004 Fr native  Matrinchã (Portuguese), Piabanha (Portuguese)   47.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the rio Tocantins basin, where it is widespread in the main river systems: the rio Tocantins itself, rio Araguaia, rio Parana and rio Itacaiunas (Ref. 55407). 
Bryconidae Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850) Fr native  Piraputanga (Portuguese), Camapuã (Portuguese), Matrinchã (Portuguese), Matrinchão (Portuguese)   56.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 38504). Reported to have a feeding association with the brown capuchin monkey Cebus apella in western Brazil. Monkeys during feeding on fruits from vegetation along river banks break and drop twigs, leaves, and fruits in the water below, thus, attracting the fish to feed on the fruits (Ref. 40097). 
Bryconidae Brycon insignis Steindachner, 1877 Fr, Thr native  Piabanha (Portuguese)   36.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paraíba do Sul River basin (Ref. 38504). Recorded from the Tiete River, Sao Paulo. Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Endangered and possibly extinct (Ref. 3881). Also Ref. 30296. 
Bryconidae Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872) Fr native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), Matrinchão (Portuguese)   38.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38504). 
Bryconidae Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864 Fr native  Pirapitinga (Portuguese), Matrinchã (Portuguese), Peripetinga (Portuguese)   28.98 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Paraná and São Francisco River basins (Ref. 38504). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Bryconidae Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819) Fr native  Pirapitinga (Portuguese), Piabanha (Portuguese), Pirapetinga (Portuguese), Pirapitinga do sul (Portuguese)   26.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paraíba do Sul basin (Ref. 38504). Also Ref. 598. 
Bryconidae Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1850) Fr, Fi native  Bracanjuva (Portuguese), Matrinchã (Portuguese), Matrinchão (Portuguese), P'racanjuba (Portuguese), Piracanjuba (Portuguese), Piracanjuva (Portuguese), Pirapitonga (Portuguese), Piraputanga (Portuguese), Pracanjuva (Portuguese), Salmão-crioulo (Portuguese)   79.50 cm TL male/unsexed 24 TL Found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Also Ref. 38504. 
Bryconidae Brycon orthotaenia Günther, 1864 Fr, Fi native  Matrinchã (Portuguese), Matrinchão (Portuguese), Piracanjuba (Portuguese)   33.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco River basin (Ref. 38504). Also Ref. 26333. 
Bryconidae Brycon pesu Müller & Troschel, 1845 Fr native  Piabano (Portuguese), Arauiri (Portuguese), Pira miri (Portuguese)   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 12225. 
Bryconidae Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, 2000 Fr native  Vermelha (Portuguese)  39.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle Rio Mucuri basin (Ref. 38873). 
Characidae Bryconadenos tanaothoros Weitzman, Menezes, Evers & Burns, 2005 Fr native    Known from the tributaries of the upper rio Xingu and upper rio Tapajós basins in Mato Grosso (Ref. 56937). 
Characidae Bryconadenos weitzmani Menezes, Netto-Ferreira & Ferreira, 2009 Fr native   4.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio Curuá, a tributary of rio Iriri, rio Xingu basin in Altamira, Pará State (Ref. 81197). 
Characidae Bryconamericus ecai da Silva, 2004 Fr native   7.51 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from a creek tributary of the lower portion of rio Taquari of laguna dos Patos drainage in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 54750). 
Characidae Bryconamericus exodon Eigenmann, 1907 Fr native    5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Paraguay River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   11.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from laguna dos Patos tributares, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 33287). Also found in the Uruguay River, southern Brazil (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Bryconamericus ikaa Casciotta, Almirón & Azpelicueta, 2004 Fr native    6.80 cm SL male/unsexed    
Characidae Bryconamericus lambari Malabarba & Kindel, 1995 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   5.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the type basin: the arroio Feitoria and tributaries, rio Cai drainage, laguna dos Patos drainage, Rio Grande do Sul. 
Characidae Bryconamericus megalepis Fowler, 1941 Fr native  Matrinchã (Portuguese)  4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Ceara. 
Characidae Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1908) Fr native    7.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Ribeira de Iguape River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Bryconamericus novae Eigenmann & Henn, 1914 Fr native   5.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Bryconamericus ornaticeps Bizerril & Perez-Neto, 1995 Fr native    6.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Macacu River basin in Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 38376 ). 
Characidae Bryconamericus patriciae da Silva, 2004 Fr native   6.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the headwaters of rio Pelotas in rio Uruguay drainage and rio das Antas in laguna dos Patos drainage (Ref. 54750). 
Characidae Bryconamericus pinnavittatus Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira, 2015 Fr native   2.74 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the lower rio Teles Pires, rio Tapajós basin in Pará State (Ref. 99308). 
Characidae Bryconamericus pyahu Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almirón, 2003 Fr native       
Characidae Bryconamericus stramineus Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese), Lambarizinho (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese), Piquira (Portuguese)   11.40 cm TL male/unsexed 3 TL Recorded from the Paraguay and Sao Francisco rivers (Ref. 598). Also found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 81048. 
Characidae Bryconamericus tenuis Bizerril & Auraujo, 1992 Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the São João River basin in Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Bryconamericus ternetzi Myers, 1928 Fr native   5.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Reported from the upper Rio Negro. 
Characidae Bryconamericus turiuba Langeani, Lucena, Pedrini & Tarelho-Pereira, 2005 Fr native   6.11 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio Parana system in Tiete, Parana, and Paranaiba rivers. 
Characidae Bryconamericus uporas Casciotta, Azpelicueta & Almirón, 2002 Fr native   5.34 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Bryconella pallidifrons (Fowler, 1946) Fr native    2.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon (Ref. 38376) and Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Bryconexodon juruenae Géry, 1980 Fr native   12.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Upper Rio Juruena, tributary of Rio Tapajoz, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 14638 (holotype of B. juruenae, 11.8 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Bryconexodon trombetasi Jégu, Santos & Ferreira, 1991 Fr native   11.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Trombetas, Rio Cachorro, Parà, MZUSP 41301 (Ref. 27925). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops affinis (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese)   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Iguanodectidae Bryconops alburnoides Kner, 1858 Fr native    15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 38376). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops caudomaculatus (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Pira miri (Portuguese)   12.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Present in the Amazon (Ref. 12225). Reported from Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops cyrtogaster (Norman, 1926) Fr native   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Endemic to the Oyapock River (Ref. 12225). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops disruptus Machado-Allison & Chernoff, 1997 Fr native   6.41 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Negro River (Ref. 38376). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops durbinae (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native   3.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops gracilis (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr endemic  scarce (very unlikely)  Type locality, Rio Tapajós (Ref. 598). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops inpai Knöppel, Junk & Géry, 1968 Fr native    10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Negro River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794) Fr native    13.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Present in the Amazon basin (Ref. 12225). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops munduruku Silva-Oliveira, Canto & Ribeiro, 2015 Fr endemic    9.64 cm male/unsexed   
Iguanodectidae Bryconops piracolina Wingert & Malabarba, 2011 Fr native    7.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops tocantinensis Guedes, Oliveira & Lucinda, 2016 Fr native   6.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Conceição, a tributary to the rio Palma, upper rio Tocantins drainage, Tocantins. Status of threat: could be classified as Least Concern (LC) based on IUCN categories and criteria since no relevant threats were detected within its distributional range (Ref. 109891). 
Iguanodectidae Bryconops transitoria (Steindachner, 1915) Fr native   6.98 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Cichlidae Bujurquina cordemadi Kullander, 1986 Fr native    6.20 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Bujurquina peregrinabunda Kullander, 1986 Fr native   10.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Codajás (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Bujurquina vittata (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Acará-pirambocaia (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese)   9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus aleuropsis Cope, 1870 Fr native    9.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36695). 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus amaurus Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus coracoideus (Cope, 1874) Fr native  Guitarrero (Portuguese), Guitarrinha (Portuguese), Rabeca (Portuguese)   11.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36695). 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus doriae Boulenger, 1902 Fr native    8.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 6868. 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus erondinae Cardoso, 2010 Fr native   8.29 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from several tributaries to the laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 85180). 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus hartti Carvalho, Cardoso, Friel & Reis, 2015 Fr native   5.77 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in several tributaries of the upper and middle rio São Francisco basins including the das Velhas, Paraopeba and Formoso rivers in Minas Gerais State (Ref. 104710). Status of threat: Least Concern (LC) as no specific threats to the species were detected (Ref. 104710). 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus knerii Steindachner, 1882 Fr native    13.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus larai Ihering, 1930 Fr native   5.56 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin (Ref. 36695). 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus minerim Carvalho, Cardoso, Friel & Reis, 2015 Fr native   4.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in several tributaries of the upper and middle rio São Francisco basins including the das Velhas, Formoso, Paraopeba and Paracatu rivers in Minas Gerais State (Ref. 104710). Status of threat: Least Concern (LC) as no threats to the species were detected (Ref. 104710). 
Aspredinidae Bunocephalus verrucosus (Walbaum, 1792) Fr native    9.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Ref. 36695) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Chilodontidae Caenotropus labyrinthicus (Kner, 1858) Fr, Fi native  Cabeça dura (Portuguese), Branquinha cascuda (Portuguese), Braquinha cascuda (Portuguese), Cabeça de fero (Portuguese), Cabeça de ferro (Portuguese), Casca grossa (Portuguese), Tariana (Portuguese), Tucano (Portuguese), Uchtuaué (Portuguese), Uhnéh (Portuguese)   18.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Rio Paranaíba and the Amazonas basin (Ref. 27703). Also Ref. 598, 37477. 
Chilodontidae Caenotropus mestomorgmatos Vari, Castro & Raredon, 1995 Fr native   16.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the upper Rio Negro downstream to below the mouth of the Rio Daraá (Ref. 27703). Also Ref. 37477. 
Chilodontidae Caenotropus schizodon Scharcansky & Lucena, 2007 Fr native   9.05 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Caiapobrycon tucurui Malabarba & Vari, 2000 Fr native   4.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Callichthyidae Callichthys callichthys (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr native  Tamuatá (Portuguese), Caboje (Portuguese), Camboatá (Portuguese), Do mato (Portuguese), Soldado (Portuguese), Tamatá (Portuguese), Tamboatá (Portuguese), Tambuatá (Portuguese), Tamoatá (Portuguese), Tamuata (Portuguese)   17.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076) and Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Found in Córrego Barreiro (Ref. 53011). 
Pimelodidae Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819) Fr, Fi, Aq native  Piracatinga (Portuguese), Fidalgo (Portuguese), Piarcatinga (Portuguese), Pintadinha (Portuguese), Pintadinho (Portuguese), Piranambu (Portuguese), Piranambú (Portuguese), Piranambu amarelo (Portuguese), Piraquaruga (Portuguese), Urubu d'água (Portuguese)   40.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Rivulidae Campellolebias brucei Vaz-Ferreira & Sierra de Soriano, 1974 Fr, Fi, Or endemic  scarce (very unlikely) 4.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from ponds between Craciuma and Tubarao in Santa Catarina. Possibly extinct (Ref. 4537). Also Ref. 3881, 36579. 
Rivulidae Campellolebias chrysolineatus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil, 1989 Fr endemic    5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Campellolebias dorsimaculatus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil, 1989 Fr endemic    4.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Ribeira de Iguape River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Campellolebias intermedius Costa & De Luca, 2006 Fr endemic    Known from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, São Paulo (Ref. 57633). 
Cichlidae Caquetaia spectabilis (Steindachner, 1875) Fr, Fi native  Acará rosada (Portuguese), Acará rosado (Portuguese)   19.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin, from the Madeira and Uatumã River drainages to Gurupá and also in the Araguari River in Amapá; in the Branco River drainage (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cyprinidae Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr introduced  Dourado (Portuguese), Peixe dourado (Portuguese), Peixe japonês (Portuguese), Peixe vermelho (Portuguese)  48.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Carcharhinidae Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes, 1839) Fr, Br native  Cabeça chata (Portuguese), Cação (Portuguese), Cação-fidalgo (Portuguese), Cação-flamengo (Portuguese), Sicuri-branco (Portuguese)  360 cm TL male/unsexed ;400 cm TL female  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 79732). Although sometimes found in fish markets of Santarém, they are not utilized as food, but possibly kept there as tourist attractions (Ref. 12202). Also Ref. 103985. 
Gasteropelecidae Carnegiella marthae Myers, 1927 Fr native  Borboleta de asas pretas (Portuguese)   2.81 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Negro. 
Gasteropelecidae Carnegiella myersi Fernández-Yépez, 1950 Fr native    2.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Acre River basin (Ref. 97592). 
Gasteropelecidae Carnegiella schereri Fernández-Yépez, 1950 Fr native   2.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 39056). 
Gasteropelecidae Carnegiella strigata (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Borboleta listrada (Portuguese), Borboleta pintada (Portuguese), Peixe borboleta (Portuguese), Peixe machado (Portuguese)   3.49 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Ref. 39056), Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Also Ref. 12225. 
Achiridae Catathyridium garmani (Jordan, 1889) Fr, Br, M native  Linguado (Portuguese), Linguado-lixa (Portuguese)   17.00 cm male/unsexed  Ranges from Rio de Janeiro southward (Ref. 36453). Occurs in the Lagoa dos Patos system, including freshwater portions (Ref. 36798). 
Achiridae Catathyridium grandirivi (Chabanaud, 1928) Fr native   11.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Grande Do Sul (Ref. 46206). 
Achiridae Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther, 1862) Fr native  Linguado (Portuguese), Arraia-sem-ferrão (Portuguese), Solha (Portuguese)   23.70 cm male/unsexed 10.8 TL   
Achiridae Catathyridium lorentzii (Weyenbergh, 1877) Fr native  Linguado (Portuguese)   5.40 cm male/unsexed    
Ariidae Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888) Fr native  Bagre gaivota (Portuguese)   22.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Grande do Sul. 
Ariidae Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr native   25.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Serrasalmidae Catoprion mento (Cuvier, 1819) Fr, Fi native  Catirina (Portuguese), Mucura piranha (Portuguese), Pacu-piranha (Portuguese), Piranha (Portuguese), Piranha pacu (Portuguese)   15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Mato Grosso. Also Ref. 39031. 
Doradidae Centrodoras brachiatus (Cope, 1872) Fr native    41.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Centrodoras hasemani (Steindachner, 1915) Fr native   21.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro River basin (Ref. 37054). 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus altae Fowler, 1945 Fr native    3.55 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus bockmanni (Sarmento-Soares & Buckup, 2005) Fr native   4.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco river basin in Minas Gerais and Bahia. Type locality, downstream from Três Marias Dam, MZUSP 82803 (holotype of Glanidium bockmanni, 4.8 cm SL, male) (Ref. 56311). 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus britskii Sarmento-Soares & Birindelli, 2015 Fr native   3.92 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the rio Paraná basin near Ilha Solteira, where now is the reservoir of the UHE Ilha Solteira, in the upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo (Ref. 103263). 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus existimatus Mees, 1974 Fr native   9.02 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 37098). Known from the Amazonas: paraná of Marchantaria I.; Manaus harbor; Turuté and in Pará, Santarém (Ref. 39641). Also Ref. 37098. 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus ferrarisi Birindelli, Sarmento-Soares & Lima, 2015 Fr native   7.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in a headwater of Rio das Balsas, a tributary of the Rio do Sono, middle Rio Tocantins basin, Tocantins state (Ref. 104786). 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus heckelii (De Filippi, 1853) Fr native    13.90 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus macracanthus Soares-Porto, 2000 Fr native   12.97 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the rio Negro drainage, in the Amazon (Ref. 39641). 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus meridionalis Sarmento-Soares, Cabeceira, Carvalho, Zuanon & Akama, 2013 Fr native   6.16 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the headwater streams of the upper reaches of rio Tapajós, at the rio Teles Pires in Mato Grosso State (Ref. 94696). 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus perugiae Steindachner, 1882 Fr native    5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Acre and Purus River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus punctatus (Mees, 1974) Fr native    4.50 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus reticulatus (Mees, 1974) Fr native    3.98 cm SL male/unsexed   
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus schultzi Rössel, 1962 Fr native   10.89 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Xingu and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 37098). Also Ref. 6868. 
Auchenipteridae Centromochlus simplex (Mees, 1974) Fr native   4.77 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Das Mortes River in Mato Grosso (Ref. 37098). Found in Xaventina House Beach, Rio das Mortes in Mato Grosso (Ref. 6868). 
Centropomidae Centropomus ensiferus Poey, 1860 Fr, Br, M native  Robalo-galhudo (Portuguese), Camorim-cabo-de-machado (Portuguese), Camorim-peba (Portuguese), Camorim-sovela (Portuguese), Camuri (Portuguese), Camurim (Portuguese), Camurim-branco (Portuguese), Camurim-sovela (Portuguese), Camuripeba (Portuguese), Robalete (Portuguese), Robalo (Portuguese), Robalo-corcunda (Portuguese)  36.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 26340. 
Centropomidae Centropomus irae Carvalho-Filho, Oliveira, Soares & Araripe, 2019 Fr, Br, M native  Ira’s snook (English), Camorim Irá (Portuguese)  53.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of <><>, Amapá, Oiapoque, Baía do Oiapoque. Known from Oiapoque Bay, between Brazil and French Guyana, and the Lago Piratuba Biological Reserve, both of which are in Amapá state (Ref. 121036). 
Centropomidae Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 Fr, Br, M native  Robalo peba (Portuguese), Cambriaçu (Portuguese), Camburiapeva (Portuguese), Camorim-corcunda (Portuguese), Camorim-peba (Portuguese), Camorim-pena (Portuguese), Camorim-tapa (Portuguese), Camuri (Portuguese), Camurim (Portuguese), Camurim branco (Portuguese), Camurim peva (Portuguese), Camurim-amarelo (Portuguese), Camurim-apuá (Portuguese), Camurim-corcunda (Portuguese), Camuripeba (Portuguese), Camurupeba (Portuguese), Cangoropeba (Portuguese), Cangurupeba (Portuguese), Robalo (Portuguese), Robalo peva (Portuguese), Robalo-peba (Portuguese)   72.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Ranges south to Florianopolis (Ref. 36507). Also Ref. 7251, 26340. 
Centropomidae Centropomus pectinatus Poey, 1860 Fr, Br, M native  Robalo-constantino (Portuguese), Camorim-corcunda (Portuguese), Camorim-sovela (Portuguese), Camorim-sovela (Portuguese), Camorim-ticopá (Portuguese), Camorim-ticopá (Portuguese), Camuri (Portuguese), Camurim (Portuguese), Robalo (Portuguese), Robalo-constantino (Portuguese)   56.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 26340 and 36880. 
Centropomidae Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792) Fr, Br, M native  Robalo-de-galha (Portuguese), Bicudo (Portuguese), Cambriaçu (Portuguese), Camburiaçu (Portuguese), Camorim (Portuguese), Camorim-açu (Portuguese), Camuri (Portuguese), Camurim (Portuguese), Camurim branco (Portuguese), Camurim-açu (Portuguese), Camurim-cabo-de-machado (Portuguese), Camurim-preto (Portuguese), Camurimpema (Portuguese), Camuripeba (Portuguese), Camuripema (Portuguese), Cangoropeba (Portuguese), Canjurupeba (Portuguese), Escalho (Portuguese), Robalão (Portuguese), Robalo (Portuguese), Robalo-bicudo (Portuguese), Robalo-branco (Portuguese), Robalo-camurim (Portuguese), Robalo-estoque (Portuguese), Robalo-flecha (Portuguese), Robalo-flexa (Portuguese), Rolão (Portuguese)   140 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 26340. 
Pseudopimelodidae Cephalosilurus fowleri Haseman, 1911 Fr endemic  Peixe-sapo (Portuguese), Pacamon (Portuguese)  40.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco River basin (Ref. 39418). Also Ref. 6868. 
Cetopsidae Cetopsidium ferreirai Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native   3.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from rio Trombetas, a left bank tributary of the lower rio Amazonas (Ref. 56045). 
Cetopsidae Cetopsidium minutum (Eigenmann, 1912) Fr native   4.90 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cetopsidae Cetopsidium orientale (Vari, Ferraris & Keith, 2003) Fr native    5.80 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cetopsidae Cetopsidium pemon Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native   4.26 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper portions of the rio Branco in northern Brazil (Ref. 56045). 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis arcana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native   9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins basins (Ref. 56045). 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis caiapo Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native   6.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins basin (Ref. 56045). 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz, 1829 Fr native  Candiru (Portuguese), Candiru açu (Portuguese), Candiru caçu (Portuguese), Candiru piranga (Portuguese), Candiru vermelho (Portuguese)   26.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36486). Type locality, equatorial rivers (Ref. 26282). 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein, 1819) Fr native  Candiru (Creole, Portuguese), Candiru-açú (Creole, Portuguese), Piracatinga (Creole, Portuguese), Canderú (Portuguese)   27.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Amazon and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 36486). Type locality: Rivers of equatorial Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis gobioides Kner, 1858 Fr native  Candiru-açú (Creole, Portuguese), Candiru (Portuguese)   10.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Irisanga (Ref. 26282, 6868). Also Ref. 36486. 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis oliveirai (Lundberg & Rapp Py-Daniel, 1994) Fr native    3.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Solimoes and Amazon rivers (Ref. 33290). Also Ref. 36486. 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis parma Oliveira, Vari & Ferraris, 2001 Fr native    17.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cetopsidae Cetopsis plumbea Steindachner, 1882 Fr native    11.80 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cetopsidae Cetopsis sandrae Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native   7.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tapajos system, Amazon basin (Ref. 56045). 
Cetopsidae Cetopsis sarcodes Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native   6.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins (Ref. 56045). 
Heptapteridae Cetopsorhamdia iheringi Schubart & Gomes, 1959 Fr endemic  Bagrinho (Portuguese), Lobó (Portuguese), Mandi (Portuguese)   11.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the upper Paraná and upper São Francisco River basins (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Cetopsorhamdia insidiosa (Steindachner, 1915) Fr endemic   7.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Branco and Rio Surumu (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 36914. 
Heptapteridae Cetopsorhamdia molinae Miles, 1943 Fr native   3.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Cichlidae Chaetobranchopsis australis Eigenmann & Ward, 1907 Fr native  Acara prata (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese)   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin in the Paraguay River (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (Steindachner, 1875) Fr, Fi native  Acará cascudo (Portuguese), Acará tucuma (Portuguese), Acará tucumã (Portuguese) common (usually seen) 12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, along the Amazon River from the mouth or the Negro River to Marajó Island, and in Amapá (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Amazon R. at Para, Santarim, Gurupa, Rio Xingu at Porto do Noz; Rio Negro, and Rio Hyuvari. Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Chaetobranchus flavescens Heckel, 1840 Fr, Fi native  Acará prata (Portuguese), Cará oião (Portuguese), Cará preto (Portuguese)   21.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;26.00 cm TL female 22 TL Known from the Amazon River basin and rivers in Amapá (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Guaporé, trib. of Rio Negro, Mato Grosso. Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Chaetobranchus semifasciatus Steindachner, 1875 Fr endemic   23.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Amazon River basin, along the Amazon-Solimões River from Tabatinga to Óbidos (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Amazon R. at Obidos, Codajas, Teffe, Rio Ica, Lake Hyanuary, Saraca at Silva, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Loricariidae Chaetostoma jegui Rapp Py-Daniel, 1991 Fr endemic   16.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uraricoera and Tacutu River basins in the Branco River drainage (Ref. 36713). Type locality: Rio Uraricoera, Federal Territory of Roraima (Ref. 26719). 
Chalceidae Chalceus epakros Zanata & Toledo-Piza, 2004 Fr native    17.40 cm TL male/unsexed    
Chalceidae Chalceus erythrurus (Cope, 1870) Fr native   21.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 38376). 
Chalceidae Chalceus guaporensis Zanata & Toledo-Piza, 2004 Fr native    17.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio Madeira (Ref. 55827). 
Characidae Chalceus latus Jardine, 1841 Fr native     
Chalceidae Chalceus macrolepidotus Cuvier, 1818 Fr native  Arari-pirá (Portuguese), Arari (Portuguese), Araripira (Portuguese), Araripirá (Portuguese), São Pedro (Portuguese), Saragui (Portuguese)   24.46 cm SL male/unsexed    
Chalceidae Chalceus spilogyros Zanata & Toledo-Piza, 2004 Fr native    Known from the lower Rio Tapajós and rio Trombetas (Ref. 55827). 
Crenuchidae Characidium alipioi Travassos, 1955 Fr native    6.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in Paraíba do Sul River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality, Ilha dos Pombos, Rio Paraiba, Estado do Rio (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium bahiense Almeida, 1971 Fr native    2.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Arembepe, Bahia, MZUSP 8940 (holotype of C. bahiensis, 1.6 cm SL, female) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 37059. 
Crenuchidae Characidium bimaculatum Fowler, 1941 Fr native    6.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal streams of northeastern Brazil (Ref. 37059). Type locality, Fortaleza, Ceará (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium boavistae Steindachner, 1915 Fr native   5.27 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Río Branco, n. Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium brevirostre Pellegrin, 1909 Fr native   3.27 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal streams in Amapá (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Carsevenne R., n. Brazil. 
Crenuchidae Characidium crandellii Steindachner, 1915 Fr native   6.44 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Rio Miang, trib. Cotingo, Tacutu; Boa Vista, Rio Branco, Brazi (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium declivirostre Steindachner, 1915 Fr native  Caruru piramiri (Portuguese)  7.97 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). 
Crenuchidae Characidium deludens Zanata & Camelier, 2015 Fr native   4.83 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in rio Cochó and rio Santo Antônio, tributaries of upper rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia State (Ref. 116766). 
Crenuchidae Characidium etheostoma Cope, 1872 Fr native   4.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). 
Crenuchidae Characidium fasciatum Reinhardt, 1867 Fr, Thr native  Canivete (Portuguese), Lambari (Portuguese)   6.74 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Das Velhas River in São Francisco River drainage and Paranaíba, Grande and Tietê rivers in the upper Paraná River drainage (Ref. 37059). Type locality, near Near Lagoa Santa (Ref. 30296). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Crenuchidae Characidium gomesi Travassos, 1956 Fr native  Canivete (Portuguese)   6.49 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in Grande, Tietê and Paranapanema rivers of the upper Paraná River drainage (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Córrego da Lazica, Ouro Fino, Minas Gerais, Bacia de Mogi-Guaçu, Pirassununga, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium grajahuense Travassos, 1944 Fr native  Canivetinho (Portuguese), Mocinha (Portuguese)   8.81 cm male/unsexed  Occurs in coastal streams between Guanabara Bay and Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 37059). Type locality, Grajaú, Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 30296). 
Crenuchidae Characidium hasemani Steindachner, 1915 Fr native   6.76 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from northern tributaries of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Rio Surumi at Serra do Melho and Rio Rupununi, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium heirmostigmata da Graça & Pavanelli, 2008 Fr native  Canivete (Spanish), Mocinha (Spanish)  5.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in rio Abelha, rio Barra Grande and rio Nestor, tributaries to rio Ivaí, upper rio Paraná basin in Paraná State (Ref. 74998). 
Crenuchidae Characidium helmeri Zanata, Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro, 2015 Fr native   4.04 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in various small coastal rivers in Southern Bahia, in the vicinity of Canavieiras, Porto Seguro, and Prado (Ref. 104900). 
Crenuchidae Characidium interruptum Pellegrin, 1909 Fr native   5.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in coastal lowland streams of southeastern Brazil (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Serra d'Estrello(Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium japuhybense Travassos, 1949 Fr native    5.54 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in coastal streams of southeastern Brazil from Ilha Grande Bay to Ribeira de Iguape River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Japuhyba [Japuíba], Angra dos Reis, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium kamakan Zanata & Camelier, 2015 Fr native   5.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Água Preta and rio Panelão, tributaries of the lower portion of rio Pardo basin, Bahia State. In the absence of imminent threats, this species could be placed under Least Concern (LC) category based on the IUCN classification (Ref. 116766). 
Crenuchidae Characidium lagosantense Travassos, 1947 Fr, Thr native  Canivete (Portuguese)   4.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Das Velhas River basin in São Francisco River drainage (Ref. 37059). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Museum: Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, MNRJ 4582 (Holotype) (Ref. 26282). Also Ref. 30296. 
Crenuchidae Characidium lanei Travassos, 1967 Fr native    6.52 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal basins of southeastern Brazil in Paraná State and Ribeira de Iguape River basin. (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Fazenda Poço Grande, Juquiá, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium laterale (Boulenger, 1895) Fr native    3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pantanal (Ref. 81048). 
Crenuchidae Characidium lauroi Travassos, 1949 Fr native    7.12 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the middle and upper Paraíba do Sul River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Rio das Pedras, Fazenda Pendo, Agulhas Negras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium litorale Leitão & Buckup, 2014 Fr native   4.52 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio São João, Rio Macaé, and Rio Imbé drainages in located in the extreme northeastern slopes of Serra do Mar, northeast of Rio de Janeiro state (Ref. 96085). 
Crenuchidae Characidium macrolepidotum (Peters, 1868) Fr native  occasional (usually not seen) 6.10 cm SL male/unsexed   
Crenuchidae Characidium mirim Netto-Ferraira, Birindelli & Buckup, 2013 Fr native   2.34 cm SL male/unsexed   
Crenuchidae Characidium nana Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira, 2015 Fr native   2.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio 13 de Maio, in the Rio Curuá, at Serra do Cachimbo, and the Rio Parazinho, both in the Rio Xingu drainage, and from Igarapé Negro, in the Rio Tapajós drainage in Pará (Ref. 104905) 
Crenuchidae Characidium nupelia da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup, 2008 Fr native  Mocinha (Spanish)  3.19 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the tributary streams of Rio Cuiabá located in the highlands upstream from the Pantanal Matogrossense, upper Rio Paraguay basin in the State of Mato Grosso (Ref. 75787). 
Crenuchidae Characidium occidentale Buckup & Reis, 1997 Fr native   4.83 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the left bank tributaries of the middle Rio Uruguay drainage in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 27672). Also Ref. 37059. 
Crenuchidae Characidium oiticicai Travassos, 1967 Fr native   6.75 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Tietê and Ribeira de Iguape River basins (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Paranapiacaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium orientale Buckup & Reis, 1997 Fr native   5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from western tributaries of the laguna dos Patos drainage, in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil (Ref. 27672). Also Ref. 37059. 
Crenuchidae Characidium papachibe Peixoto & Wosiacki, 2013 Fr native   2.66 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in an unnamed stream, left tributary to Rio Aruã, and from the Lago São Francisco do Alto Aruã, at the Rio Aruã, left tributary to Rio Arapiuns, left tributary to Rio Tapajós, tributary to the Rio Amazonas, Município de Juruti in Pará (Ref. 93226). 
Crenuchidae Characidium pterostictum Gomes, 1947 Fr native    8.70 cm SL male/unsexed 57 TL Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 37059). 
Crenuchidae Characidium rachovii Regan, 1913 Fr native  Canivete (Portuguese)  4.32 cm SL male/unsexed   
Crenuchidae Characidium roesseli Géry, 1965 Fr native   3.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the upper Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 km below Leticia, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium samurai Zanata & Camelier, 2014 Fr native   4.66 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio das Almas and rio Vermelho basins in Bahia State, eastern Brazil (Ref. 96872). 
Crenuchidae Characidium satoi Melo & Oyakawa, 2015 Fr native   4.43 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from a single locality, the Córrego Curral das Éguas, a small tributary of the right margin of Rio Abaeté, in the Rio São Francisco basin (Ref. 104008). 
Crenuchidae Characidium schubarti Travassos, 1955 Fr native    51.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Paranapanema basin in upper Paraná River drainage and Ribeira de Iguape River basin (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Córrego entre Murtinhos e Jaguariaíva, Paraná, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium serrano Buckup & Reis, 1997 Fr native  Piquira (Portuguese)  5.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper reaches of the Rio Uruguay drainage (Ref. 27672). Also Ref. 37059, 79585. 
Crenuchidae Characidium steindachneri Cope, 1878 Fr native   4.12 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37059). 
Crenuchidae Characidium stigmosum Melo & Buckup, 2002 Fr native   4.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Goiás State, mun. Cavalcante, Goiás, small stream tributary of córrego, Ave Maria, near Santo Antônio farm headquarters, 14 km north of Cavalcante, MZUSP 40804 (holotype of Characidium stigmosum, 3.37 cm SL, male) (Ref. 46824). Also Ref. 37059. from the tributaries of rio das Almas, a left bank tributary of rio Paranã in Goiás State (Ref. 46824). Also Ref. 37059. 
Crenuchidae Characidium summum Zanata & Ohara, 2015 Fr endemic    4.23 cm SL male/unsexed  Only known from upper rio Pacaás Novos, a tributary of rio Mamoré, rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil (Ref. 104900). 
Crenuchidae Characidium tenue (Cope, 1894) Fr native  Canivete (Portuguese)  5.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Uruguay River and Laguna dos Patos basins (Ref. 37059). Type locality, upper Rio Jacuhy, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium timbuiense Travassos, 1946 Fr native   5.69 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Timbuí River basin in Espírito Santo (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Córrego Valsungana, trib. Of Rio Timbui, near Santa Tereza, Estado do Espíritu Santo, Brazil, elev. 785 m (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium vestigipinne Buckup & Hahn, 2000 Fr endemic    5.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the type locality in the headwaters of Caraguatá River, upper Uruguay River drainage (Ref. 37059). Type locality: headwaters of Rio Caraguatá, state of Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 36884). 
Crenuchidae Characidium vidali Travassos, 1967 Fr native   6.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from northeastern tributaries of Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 37059). Type locality: Rio Soberbo, Barreira (Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, elev. 400 m (Ref. 26282). 
Crenuchidae Characidium xanthopterum Silveira, Langeani, da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup, 2008 Fr native   4.73 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the rio Paranaíba drainage, upper rio Paraná basin, and tributaries to the upper rio Tocantins basin in Goiás (Ref. 76854). 
Crenuchidae Characidium xavante da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup, 2008 Fr native   2.82 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Culuene watershed in the upper Rio Xingu drainage, Mato Grosso (Ref. 75787). 
Crenuchidae Characidium zebra Eigenmann, 1909 Fr native  Piquira (Portuguese)   7.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Pardo River, upper Paraná River basin, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 27745). Recorded from Córrego Barreiro (Ref. 53011). 
Characidae Charax awa Guimarães, Brito, Ferreira & Ottoni, 2018 Fr native   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Mearim, Rio Munim and Rio Turiaçu basins, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil (Ref. 117313). 
Characidae Charax caudimaculatus Lucena, 1987 Fr native  Saicanga (Portuguese)   9.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Madeira (Ref. 36811) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Characidae Charax condei (Géry & Knöppel, 1976) Fr native   5.38 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro River basin (Ref. 36811). Type locality, Rio Negro (Ref. 33021). Also Ref. 1672. 
Characidae Charax delimai Menezes & Lucena, 2014 Fr native   10.20 cm SL male/unsexed ;12.10 cm SL female  Known from the Rio Tiquié, rio Negro basin (Ref. 96861) 
Characidae Charax gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr native  Giboso (Portuguese), Saicanga (Portuguese)   14.40 cm TL male/unsexed    
Characidae Charax hemigrammus (Eigenmann, 1912) Fr native   3.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36811). 
Characidae Charax leticiae Lucena, 1987 Fr native  Saicanga (Portuguese)   10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Museum: near Posto de Trocará, igarapé Urubu, Rio Tocantins, Pará, MZUSP 28660 (holotype of C. leticiae, 7.6 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 36811. 
Characidae Charax macrolepis (Kner, 1858) Fr native   9.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Guaporé River basin, upper Madeira River drainage (Ref. 36811). 
Characidae Charax michaeli Lucena, 1989 Fr native   11.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Branco River basin (Ref. 36811). Museum: Rio Branco (in front of ilha de Maraca), Igarapé do Cujobim, Roraima, MZUSP 37276 (holotype, 11.3 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Charax niger Lucena, 1989 Fr native   12.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal rivers of Amapá State (Ref. 36811). Museum: Rio Amapá (canal do rio), Cachoeira Grande, Amapá, MZUSP 33422 (holotype, 12.4 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Charax pauciradiatus (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Cacunda (Portuguese)  10.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Amazon River basin (Ref. 36811). Present in the Oyapock River which forms the border between French Guiana and Brazil (Ref. 12225). 
Characidae Charax rupununi Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Charax stenopterus (Cope, 1894) Fr native  Corcunda (Portuguese), Lambari-vidro (Portuguese)  9.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 36811. 
Characidae Charax tectifer (Cope, 1870) Fr native    14.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Characidae Charax unimaculatus Lucena, 1989 Fr native   8.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle Amazon River basin (Ref. 36811). Museum: Lago Manacapuru, Amazonia, MZUSP 6634 (holotype, 6.5 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Heptapteridae Chasmocranus brachynemus Gomes & Schubart, 1958 Fr endemic  Bagrinho (Portuguese)   13.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Mogi Guaçu River basin in upper Paraná River drainage (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Chasmocranus brevior Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native    7.90 cm SL male/unsexed    
Heptapteridae Chasmocranus longior Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native   17.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Negro and Xingu River basins (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Chasmocranus lopezi Miranda Ribeiro, 1968 Fr endemic   5.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from undetermined stream in São Paulo (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Chasmocranus truncatorostris Borodin, 1927 Fr endemic  Bagre do banhado (Portuguese), Jundiá pintado (Portuguese)  11.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Colonia Hansa Joinvile (=Joinville), Santa Catarina Province (Ref. 6868, 36914). 
Loricariidae Chauliocheilos saxatilis Martins, Andrade, Rosa & Langeani, 2014 Fr native   4.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the headwaters of rio Itamarandiba, upper rio Jequitinhonha drainage in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 98819). 
Pimelodidae Cheirocerus eques Eigenmann, 1917 Fr native  Mandi de raso (Portuguese), Mandi do olhão (Portuguese), Mandi manteiga (Portuguese)    Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36506). 
Pimelodidae Cheirocerus goeldii (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native  Mandi (Portuguese)   15.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Purus River basin (Ref. 36506). Type locality: Rio Purus, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Characidae Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann, 1915 Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese)  4.19 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Cacequy [Cacequi], Rio Ibicuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese)   5.78 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.00 cm TL female  Recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). 
Characidae Cheirodon jaguaribensis Fowler, 1941 Fr native  Piabinha (Portuguese)  3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Jaguaribe River basin in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 48602). 
Characidae Cheirodon parahybae Eigenmann, 1915 Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese)  3.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Paraíba do Sul River basin (Ref. 37055). 
Chilodontidae Chilodus gracilis Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1988 Fr native   6.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in central portions of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37477). 
Chilodontidae Chilodus punctatus Müller & Troschel, 1844 Fr native  Cabeça para baixo (Portuguese), Quilodos (Portuguese)   18.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Acre river basin (Ref. 97592). 
Chilodontidae Chilodus zunevei Puyo, 1946 Fr native   7.70 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Chrysobrycon eliasi Vanegas-Ríos, Azpelicueta & Ortega, 2011 Fr native    3.99 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.35 cm female  Found in the Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Cichlidae Cichla jariina Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native    34.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Jari downstream of Cachoeira Santo Antonio, State of Pará, INPA 3504 (holotype of Cichla jariina, 34 cm SL, adult male ). Known only from the Rio Jari, in the region of Cachoeira Itacari and Cachoeira Santo Antonio (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla kelberi Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native  Tucunaré amarela (Portuguese), Tucunaré comum (Portuguese)   58.50 cm SL male/unsexed 21.5 TL Type locality, Pará: Tucurui, MZUSP 92397 (holoype of Cichla kelberi, 27.6 cm SL). Known from the Rio Araguaia drainage and the lower Rio Tocantins drainage. Introduced in reservoirs in Rio Grande do Norte, Minas Gerais and Ceará (as C. monoculus, cited in Chellappa et al., 2003; as C. ocellaris cited in Fontenele, 1948, ); in the Rio Paraíba do Sul (State of Rio de Janeiro); and, the Rio Paraná. Tucunaré amarela was listed from the Itaipu, Porto Primavera, Jupiá, Três Irmãos, Ilha Solteira, São Simão, Porto Colômbia, Volta Grande, Jaguara, Estreito, Promissão, Igaratá and Paraibuna dams in the Brazilian Paraná basin, the Funil and Ribeirão das Lajes dams in the Rio Paraíba do Sul drainage, the Xingó dam in the Rio São Francisco drainage, the Pacoti-Riachão dam near Fortaleza in Ceará, the Serra da Mesa dam in the Rio Tocantins drainage (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla melaniae Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native    36.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Restricted to the Lower Rio Xingu drainage: Balneário do Pedral on the Rio Xingu, Gorotire, at the lower course of Rio Fresco; and Cachoeira do Espelho. Type locality, Cachoeira do Espelho, MZUSP 92400 (holotype of Cichla melaniae, 23 cm SL, adult female) (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla mirianae Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native    52.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, forest pool in Rio Arinos, Município Porto dos Gauchos, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 92399 (holotype of Cichla mirianae, 23.6 cm SL, adult female). Known from the upper Rio Tapajós drainage, in the Juruena and Teles Pires rivers, and from the middle and upper Rio Xingu drainage, in the Fresco, Batovi, Culuene and Suiá-Missu rivers (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831 Fr, Fi native  Tucunaré açu (Portuguese), Tucunaré (Portuguese)   70.00 cm SL male/unsexed 18 TL Known from Tabatinga to the Marajó island, including lower parts of the Tefé, Trombetas and Tapajós rivers (Ref. 57716). Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). 
Cichlidae Cichla nigromaculata Jardine & Schomburgk, 1843 Fr native   26.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Negro and Padauiri (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla ocellaris Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Fr, Br questionable  Tucunaré açu (Portuguese), Furiba (Portuguese), Peixe moeda (Portuguese), Peixe zebra (Portuguese), Pitanga (Portuguese), Tucunaré (Portuguese), Tucunaré comum (Portuguese)   74.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Outside distributional range, occurrence needs confirmation. 
Cichlidae Cichla orinocensis Humboldt, 1821 Fr native  Tucunaré (Portuguese), Tucunaré miri (Portuguese)   61.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Negro River asin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Cichla pinima Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native  Tucunaré pinima (Portuguese)   52.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Km 30, Rio Curuá-Una, Pará, INPA 691 (holotype of Cichla pinima, 30 cm SL, adult male). Known from Lower Rio Tapajós, Rio Curuá-Una, lower Rio Xingu, lower Rio Tocantins, and Rio Capim (Fig. 75); uncertain localities in southern Amapá and Rio Arapiuns, introduced in Rio Paraguaçu in eastern Brazil, and probably elsewhere in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla piquiti Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native  Tucunaré (Portuguese), Tucunaré azul (Portuguese)   48.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;38.50 cm TL female  Type locality, Rio Itacaiúnas at Caldeirão, Pará, MZUSP 40296 (holotype of Cichla piquiti, 21.9 cm SL, young male). Natural occurrences are recorded from the lower (Rio Itacaiunas, Marabá, Itupiranga), and upper Rio Tocantins (Rio Paranã), as well as in the Araguaia drainage (Cocalinho and Rio das Mortes). 
Cichlidae Cichla pleiozona Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native    44.20 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 Fr, Fi native  Tucunaré (Portuguese), Tucunaré açú (Portuguese), Tucunaré comum (Portuguese), Tucunaré paca (Portuguese), Tucunaré pinima (Portuguese), Tucunaré tinga (Portuguese)   99.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Restricted to blackwater rivers and their tributaries of many localities along the Rio Negro. Specimens from Rio Jamari (INPA 3493) and a small specimen from Lago Genipapo (INPA uncat.) on the Rio Aripuanã are questionably referred to C. temensis (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla thyrorus Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native    43.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Igarapé Caxipacoré, Pará, INPA 3503 (holotype of Cichla thyrorus, 35.5 cm SL) (Ref. 57716). Known from the upstream of the falls, Rio Trombetas near Cachoeira Porteira (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichla vazzoleri Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 Fr native    41.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Area Shell-Alcoa, lower Rio Trombetas, Rio Trombetas drainage, Pará, INPA 3501(holotype of Cichla vazzoleri, 29.5 cm SL, adult male). Known from the middle Rio Uatumã and lower Rio Trombetas including but not above the Cachoeira Porteira, to the Oriximiná region at the mouth of the Rio Cuminá (Ref. 57716). 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma amazonarum Kullander, 1983 Fr, Fi native  Acará (Portuguese)  11.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). Found in fish markets in Santarám (Ref. 12202). Also Ref. 12251, 36377. 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma araguaiense Kullander, 1983 Fr endemic    9.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin in Tocantins and upper Xingu River basins (Ref. 36377). Found in the Araguaia and Ilha do Bananal (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma bimaculatum (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr native  Acará (Portuguese), Acará-cascudo (Portuguese) common (usually seen) 12.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;30.00 cm TL female  Known from the Branco River system (Ref. 26372). 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma boliviense Kullander, 1983 Fr native    10.70 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Acará (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese)   11.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin, in the Paraguay River drainage (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 12251, 12965). 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma orientale Kullander, 1983 Fr endemic  Acará (Portuguese), Acará comum (Portuguese)   13.60 cm SL male/unsexed 10 TL Occurs in Ceará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba (Ref. 36377). Found in large quantities in Juazeiro do Norte, Ceara and along the road from Juazeiro to Recife and Fortaleza (Ref. 12251). Type locality: Pentecoste, Rio Curu system, Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma paranaense Kullander, 1983 Fr endemic    9.50 cm SL male/unsexed 4.7 TL Known from the upper Paraná River drainage above Guaira (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Tres Lagoas, on left bank of Rio Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma portalegrense (Hensel, 1870) Fr endemic  Acará verde (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese)   12.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Laguna dos Patos basin and Tramandaí River basin in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 Fr endemic  Acará (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese)   8.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco, Parnaíba and Capivara River basins (Ref. 36377 ). Common from Brasilia to the western side of the Chapada Diamantina (Ref. 12251). Type locality: Lagoa Viana, Rio Sao Franciso system, Bahia, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Cichlasoma zarskei Ottoni, 2011 Fr native   9.96 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cyclopsettidae Citharichthys uhleri Jordan, 1889 Fr native   14.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Clariidae Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fr introduced  Bagre-africano (Portuguese) fairly common (chances are about 50%) 170 cm TL male/unsexed  Introduced in the Guaraguaçu River basin (Ref. 57722, 94815) and Urugay River (Ref. 79585). The species has become widespread in Guaraguaçu as per sampling done November 2002 and May-September 2004 using gill nests, longlines, cast nets, beach seines and fish traps. Twenty-three specimens, lengths ranging from 33.4-78.5 cm including 3 mature females were caught (Ref. 57722). Also ref. 13686. 
Triportheidae Clupeacharax anchoveoides Pearson, 1924 Fr native    6.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pantanal (Ref. 81048). Also Ref. 38378. 
Poeciliidae Cnesterodon brevirostratus Rosa & Costa, 1993 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  4.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 30833). Found in the upper Pelotas and Canoas River basins in Uruguay River drainage; Jacuí River as well as the headwaters of the Maquiné River in the Tramandaí River basins and the headwaters of Itajaí-Açu River basin (Ref. 50894). 
Poeciliidae Cnesterodon carnegiei Haseman, 1911 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  2.97 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.50 cm female  Known from the upper Iguaçu River and its upper tributaries (Ref. 50894). Also Ref. 26130. 
Poeciliidae Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)   3.55 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm TL female  Recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). 
Poeciliidae Cnesterodon hypselurus Lucinda & Garavello, 2001 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  3.05 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paranapanema River basin (Ref. 50894). 
Poeciliidae Cnesterodon iguape Lucinda, 2005 Fr native   2.24 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.49 cm SL female  Known from Apiaí, creek on headwaters of rio Iporanga in São Paulo (Ref. 57154). 
Poeciliidae Cnesterodon omorgmatos Lucinda & Garavello, 2001 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  3.05 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Iguacu River basin (Ref. 50894). 
Poeciliidae Cnesterodon septentrionalis Rosa & Costa, 1993 Fr native   3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from a swamp near the Córrego do Rancho fountainhead, Mato Grosso (Ref. 30833). Found in the upper Araguaia River basin (Ref. 50894). 
Tetraodontidae Colomesus asellus (Müller & Troschel, 1849) Fr native    12.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River including tributaries Araguaia and Guaporé Rivers (Ref. 79673). 
Tetraodontidae Colomesus tocantinensis Amaral, Brito, Silva & Carvalho, 2013 Fr native   3.49 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Colomesus tocantinensis, Tocantins River near Porto Nacional, State of Tocantins (Ref. 122317). 
Serrasalmidae Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816) Fr, Fi, Aq, Rstr native  Ruelo (Portuguese), Bocó (Portuguese), Pirapitinga (Portuguese), Tambaqui (Portuguese), Tambaqui branco (Portuguese) common (usually seen) 108 cm TL male/unsexed  Aquaculture: also experimental. Also Ref. 9987. 
Apteronotidae Compsaraia compsa (Mago-Leccia, 1994) Fr native   33.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Negro River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Compsaraia iara Bernt & Albert, 2017 Fr native   23.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River and near the mouths of its larger tributaries (Ref. 115978). 
Apteronotidae Compsaraia samueli Albert & Crampton, 2009 Fr native   22.60 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Compsura heterura Eigenmann, 1915 Fr native  Piabinha (Creole, Portuguese)  3.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco and Parnaíba River basins, and Atlantic versant rivers of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba and Pernambuco (Ref. 37055). 
Pimelodidae Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr native  Pirá (Portuguese), Pirá-tamanduá (Portuguese)   53.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in Rio São Fransisco (Ref. 6868). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Lebiasinidae Copeina guttata (Steindachner, 1876) Fr native  Copeína rubi (Portuguese)  7.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37104). 
Lebiasinidae Copella arnoldi (Regan, 1912) Fr native  Piratanta (Portuguese), Pirá tantan (Portuguese), Splashing tetra (English)   3.36 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37104). 
Lebiasinidae Copella carsevennensis (Regan, 1912) Fr native   5.70 cm TL male/unsexed   
Lebiasinidae Copella compta (Myers, 1927) Fr native   5.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Negro. Also Ref. 37104. 
Lebiasinidae Copella eigenmanni (Regan, 1912) Fr native   3.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Marapanin, MZUSP uncat. Known from Para. 
Lebiasinidae Copella meinkeni Zarske & Géry, 2006 Fr native   4.54 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Negro (Ref. 77043). 
Lebiasinidae Copella metae (Eigenmann, 1914) Fr native   3.40 cm SL male/unsexed   
Lebiasinidae Copella nattereri (Steindachner, 1876) Fr, Fi native    4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37104). 
Lebiasinidae Copella nigrofasciata (Meinken, 1952) Fr native    4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37104). 
Lebiasinidae Copella vilmae Géry, 1963 Fr, Fi native   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Upper Amazon (Ref. 598, 37104). 
Trichomycteridae Copionodon lianae Campanario & de Pinna, 2000 Fr native   6.38 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Grisante (Rio Mucujê basin), Bahia (Ref. 45131). Also Ref. 39970. 
Trichomycteridae Copionodon orthiocarinatus de Pinna, 1992 Fr native   7.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Mucujê River, tributary of the Paraguaçu River (Ref. 39970). 
Trichomycteridae Copionodon pecten de Pinna, 1992 Fr native   6.22 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Mucujê River, tributary of the Paraguaçu River (Ref. 39970). 
Characidae Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis, 1911) Fr native    4.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Tietê River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Cichlidae Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger, 1897) Fr, Br, Fi introduced  Tilápia (Portuguese), Acará tilápia (Portuguese), Tilápia do congo (Portuguese), Tilápia-rendali (Portuguese)   45.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076) and Machado River (Ref. 97589). 
Loricariidae Cordylancistrus platyrhynchus (Fowler, 1943) Fr native    9.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Corumbataia britskii Ferreira & Ribeiro, 2007 Fr native   2.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in two streams, Córrego Pedra Azul and Córrego Fazendinha. These steams are both tributaries of Rio Sucuriú, a right tributary of the upper Rio Paraná basin in Mato Grosso do Sul (Ref. 57842). 
Loricariidae Corumbataia cuestae Britski, 1997 Fr native   3.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Tietê River basin (Ref. 36885). 
Loricariidae Corumbataia tocantinensis Britski, 1997 Fr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Araguaia and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 36885). 
Loricariidae Corumbataia veadeiros Carvalho, 2008 Fr native   3.68 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio das Almas and the Ribeirão dos Bois, both of which are tributaries of the Rio Paranã, in the headwaters of the Rio Tocantins basin in Goiás (Ref. 78746). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras acrensis Nijssen, 1972 Fr endemic    3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Furo do lago Sao Francisco, a tributary at the left bank of the Rio Jurua, upstream of the confuence with the Mao at Cruzeiro do Sul, Estado Acre (Ref. 26041). Found in the Acre and Purus River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras acutus Cope, 1872 Fr native   5.48 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras adolfoi Burgess, 1982 Fr native   5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, a small tributary of the upper Rio Negro (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras aeneus (Gill, 1858) Fr native  Dunda (Portuguese), Camboatazinho (Portuguese), Coridora (Portuguese), Corídora (Portuguese), Enéus (Portuguese), Limpa planta (Portuguese), Sarro (Portuguese), Tamuata (Portuguese)   7.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Córrego Barreiro (Ref. 53011) and Acre River basin (Ref. 97592). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras agassizii Steindachner, 1876 Fr native  Agassízi (Portuguese)  5.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras amandajanea Sands, 1995 Fr native   5.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras amapaensis Nijssen, 1972 Fr native   7.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Amapa (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras ambiacus Cope, 1872 Fr, Or native   4.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras apiaka Espíndola, Spencer, Rocha & Britto, 2014 Fr native   3.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the tributaries of the rio Arinos, rio Teles Pires and rio Preto, all clearwater tributaries of the upper rio Tapajós in Mato Grosso State (Ref. 102660). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras araguaiaensis Sands, 1990 Fr native   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Araguaia (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras arcuatus Elwin, 1938 Fr native  Tabatinga (Portuguese), São Pedro (Portuguese), Sarro (Portuguese)  4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras areio Knaack, 2000 Fr native  Camboatazinho (Portuguese)  5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraguay River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras armatus (Günther, 1868) Fr native    5.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Callichthyidae Corydoras aurofrenatus Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 Fr native      
Callichthyidae Corydoras baderi Geisler, 1969 Fr native   4.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Paru do Oeste, Para (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras benattii Espíndola, Tencatt, Pupo, Villa‐Verde & Britto, 2018 Fr native   3.09 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Corydoras benattii, Mato Grosso, between Canarana and Gaúcha do Norte, Rio Culuene, a tributary to the Rio Xingu. It is known from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazilian Amazon. In the Rio Xingu basin, it is also known in Pará State from the Rio Fresco sub drainage (Rio Trairão and Igarapé Manguari), middle Rio Xingu and from the lower Rio Xingu basin near Altamira. In the Rio Tapajós basin, it occurs in the Rio Peixoto de Azevedo, a tributary to the Rio Teles Pires, Mato Grosso and from Rio Cururu, a tributary to the Rio São Manuel, Pará (Ref. 122129). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras bifasciatus Nijssen, 1972 Fr native   5.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras blochi Nijssen, 1971 Fr native   4.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Amazonas and Branco drainages (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras bondi Gosline, 1940 Fr native   4.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras britskii (Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1983) Fr native   8.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraguay River basin (Ref. 37395). Also Ref. 26041. 
Callichthyidae Corydoras burgessi Axelrod, 1987 Fr native   4.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras carlae Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1983 Fr native    5.35 cm SL male/unsexed    
Callichthyidae Corydoras caudimaculatus Rössel, 1961 Fr, Or native   4.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio Guapore (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras cervinus Rössel, 1962 Fr, Or native    4.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the main stream of the upper Rio Guapore, Rondonia (Ref. 26041). Not common in the aquarium trade (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras cochui Myers & Weitzman, 1954 Fr native   2.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Araguaya (Goiaz Province), Santa Maria, Novo (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras condiscipulus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1980 Fr native   5.10 cm SL male/unsexed   
Callichthyidae Corydoras crimmeni Grant, 1997 Fr native   4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). Type locality, aquarium specimen, said to be from Brazil, Roraima State, near the city of Boa Vista, possibly from the Rio Branco (Ref. 34116). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras crypticus Sands, 1995 Fr native   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras davidsandsi Black, 1987 Fr native   4.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). Type locality, Rio Unini (Ref. 34117). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras difluviatilis Britto & Castro, 2002 Fr native  Coridora (Portuguese)  4.73 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the upper rio Paranaíba and upper rio Grande basins, rio Paraná system, and rio Jequitaí, rio Preto, and headwaters of rio da Prata, São Francisco system, in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Ref. 46825). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Corydoras duplicareus Sands, 1995 Fr native   4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras ehrhardti Steindachner, 1910 Fr native    4.68 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal rivers in Santa Catarina and Paraná and the Iguaçu River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from mountain streams near Joinville in Estado Parana and Jaragua in Estado Sao Paulo (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras elegans Steindachner, 1876 Fr native    5.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the central Amazon region near Tefe and the Rio Ampiyacu (Ref. 26041). Recorded from the Acre, Purus (Ref. 97592) and Machado River basins (Ref. 97589). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras ellisae Gosline, 1940 Fr native  Camboatazinho (Portuguese)  5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pantanal (Ref. 81048). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras ephippifer Nijssen, 1972 Fr, Or native   4.95 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in creeks of Rio Amapari, Amapa (Ref. 26041). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras eques Steindachner, 1876 Fr native  Corídora (Portuguese)  4.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River near Tefe and Cudajas (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras evelynae Rössel, 1963 Fr native   4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). Found in the upper Rio Solimoes, Amazonas (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras eversi Tencatt & Britto, 2016 Fr native   4.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from its type locality, an unnamed stream tributary to the rio Araguaia in Montes Claros de Goiás, Goiás (Ref. 109933). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras flaveolus Ihering, 1911 Fr native  Rouquinho (Portuguese)  3.82 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from the tributaries to Rio Piracicaba above Salto, Sao Paulo (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras garbei Ihering, 1911 Fr native  Coridora (Portuguese), Tamoatá (Portuguese)  3.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia (Ref. 26041). Also Ref, 37395. 
Callichthyidae Corydoras gossei Nijssen, 1972 Fr, Or native   5.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Mamore system in Rondonia (Ref. 26041). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras gracilis Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   2.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Madeira within 100 miles of Porto Velho and from a tributary of Rio Tapajos, 66.5 km west of Itaituba, Estado Para (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras griseus Holly, 1940 Fr, Or native   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from small side streams in the vicinity of the Amazon River (Ref. 26041). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras gryphus Tencatt, Britto & Pavanelli, 2014 Fr native   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the lower rio Paraná, near Itaipu dam (Ref. 95506). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras guapore Knaack, 1961 Fr, Or native   4.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Guaporé River (Ref. 26041). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras haraldschultzi Knaack, 1962 Fr, Or native   5.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Rio Tocantins, Rio Araguaia and the upper Rio Guapore, a border river between Brazil and Bolivia (Ref. 26041). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras hastatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888 Fr native  Camboatazinho (Portuguese), Corídora anã (Portuguese)   2.40 cm SL male/unsexed    
Callichthyidae Corydoras imitator Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1983 Fr native   5.56 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio Negro (Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira) (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras incolicana Burgess, 1993 Fr native   5.21 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras julii Steindachner, 1906 Fr native  Coridora (Portuguese), Corídora leopardo (Portuguese), Leopardo (Portuguese)   5.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Amazon River and coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras kanei Grant, 1998 Fr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras lacerdai Hieronimus, 1995 Fr native   3.36 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Ribeira da Terra Firme, between Canavieiras and Ilheus, se. Bahia (Ref. 27251). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras lacrimostigmata Tencatt, Britto & Pavanelli, 2014 Fr native   3.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio Ivaí basin, a tributary of the rio Paraná, in the State of Paraná (Ref. 95501). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras latus Pearson, 1924 Fr misidentification   5.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurrence in this country not supported by R. Reis; probably a misidentification. 
Callichthyidae Corydoras leopardus Myers, 1933 Fr native   6.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). Occurs in coastal waters around Maracana (north from Belem), Para (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras lymnades Tencatt, Vera-Alcaraz, Britto & Pavanelli, 2013 Fr native   2.97 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper and middle rio São Francisco basin, from headwater streams in the Minas Gerais State to the main channel of the river in the Bahia State, northeastern Brazil (Ref. 93812). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras maculifer Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1971 Fr, Or native   5.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Araguaia River basin (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras melanistius Regan, 1912 Fr native    5.10 cm SL male/unsexed   
Callichthyidae Corydoras melini Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1930 Fr, Or native   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras multimaculatus Steindachner, 1907 Fr native  Coridora (Portuguese), Maria da serra (Portuguese), Sarro (Portuguese)  5.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from a tributary to the Rio Preto near Santa Rita de Cassia (Ref. 26041). Also Ref. 37395. 
Callichthyidae Corydoras narcissus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1980 Fr native   6.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in a creek flowing into the Rio Ipixuna, Rio Purus system, Amazonas (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras nattereri Steindachner, 1876 Fr, Or native  Coridoras (Portuguese), São Pedro (Portuguese), Sarro (Portuguese)   5.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal rivers in southeastern Brazil from Espírito Santo to Paraná (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras nijsseni Sands, 1989 Fr native   3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras oiapoquensis Nijssen, 1972 Fr native   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Callichthyidae Corydoras ornatus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 Fr native   4.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries to the Rio Tapajos (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras ourastigma Nijssen, 1972 Fr native   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Collected from the Iquiri about 47 km form Rio Branco village, Rio Purus system, Estado Acre (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras paleatus (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Limpa-fundo (Portuguese), Cascudinho (Portuguese), Coridora (Portuguese), Corídora (Portuguese), Limpa planta (Portuguese), Limpa vidro (Portuguese), Paleatus (Portuguese), Sarro (Portuguese)   6.60 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.10 cm SL female  Found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras parallelus Burgess, 1993 Fr native   5.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras pinheiroi Dinkelmeyer, 1995 Fr native   5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from western Amazon River basin in Rondônia (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras polystictus Regan, 1912 Fr native  Camboatazinho (Portuguese), Coridora (Portuguese)   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from the tributaries of the eastern Rio Guapore in Mato Grosso (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras pulcher Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1973 Fr, Or native   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Purus River basin (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras pygmaeus Knaack, 1966 Fr, Or native   2.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Madeira River basin (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras rabauti La Monte, 1941 Fr native  Corídora (Portuguese)  5.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Callichthyidae Corydoras reticulatus Fraser-Brunner, 1938 Fr native  São Pedro (Portuguese), Sarro (Portuguese)  6.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras robineae Burgess, 1983 Fr native   4.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Aiuana of the upper Rio Negro (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras robustus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1980 Fr native   7.12 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Purus River basin in middle Amazon (Ref. 37395). Found in a creek that runs into the Rio Ipixuna of the Purus system, Estado Amazonas (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras sarareensis Dinkelmeyer, 1995 Fr native   4.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Guaporé River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras schwartzi Rössel, 1963 Fr native  São Pedro (Portuguese), Sarro (Portuguese)  3.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found near the mouth of the Rio Purus (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras semiaquilus Weitzman, 1964 Fr native   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). Collected at Igarape Preto, a small jungle rivulet at the headwaters of the black water creeks that empty into the Rio Solimoes, Amazonas (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras serratus Sands, 1995 Fr native   4.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras seussi Dinkelmeyer, 1996 Fr native    6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Mamoré River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras similis Hieronimus, 1991 Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Madeira River basin (Ref. 37395). Type locality, Trib. of Rio Madeira, vicinity of Ariqumes, Rondonia (Ref. 27250). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras sodalis Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1986 Fr native   4.86 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). Recorded from the Rio Solimoes at Benjamin Constant (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras solox Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1983 Fr native   6.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Oyapok basin in Amapa territory (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras spectabilis Knaack, 1999 Fr native   4.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Guaporé River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras splendens (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native   9.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon basin (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras steindachneri Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1973 Fr, Or native   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal rivers in Paraná (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras stenocephalus Eigenmann & Allen, 1942 Fr native   6.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras sterbai Knaack, 1962 Fr native   6.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio Guapore (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras treitlii Steindachner, 1906 Fr, Or native   5.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras trilineatus Cope, 1872 Fr native    6.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Ref. 37395) and Machado River basins (Ref. 97589). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras tukano Britto & Lima, 2003 Fr native   4.14 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from rio Tiquié and its tributaries in the upper rio Negro basin, Amazonas (Ref. 51470). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras undulatus Regan, 1912 Fr native  Coridora (Portuguese), Limpa fundo (Portuguese)   4.40 cm SL male/unsexed    
Callichthyidae Corydoras urucu Britto, Wosiacki & Montag, 2009 Fr native   2.75 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Urucu basin, a tributary of Lago Coari, Rio Solimões system in Coari, Amazonas (Ref. 83456). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras vittatus Nijssen, 1971 Fr native   3.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Itapicuru drainage (Ref. 26041). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras xinguensis Nijssen, 1972 Fr, Or native   3.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Xingu River basin (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Callichthyidae Corydoras zygatus Eigenmann & Allen, 1942 Fr native    5.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Characidae Creagrutus anary Fowler, 1913 Fr native  Anari (Portuguese)   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Madeira river. 
Characidae Creagrutus atrisignum Myers, 1927 Fr native   5.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Maranhão River basin in Tocantins River drainage (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus barrigai Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   5.33 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus beni Eigenmann, 1911 Fr native    7.30 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Creagrutus britskii Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   5.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Tocantins River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus cochui Géry, 1964 Fr native   11.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus cracentis Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the lower portions of Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus figueiredoi Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   6.33 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Tocantins River drainage in both upper Tocantins and Araguaia River basins (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus ignotus Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   6.23 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus maxillaris (Myers, 1927) Fr native    7.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the upper Rio Negro. 
Characidae Creagrutus menezesi Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   7.52 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Tocantins River basin and tentatively the Branco and Negro rivers near mouth of Branco (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus meridionalis Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   11.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Paraguay River basin in Mato Grosso (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus molinus Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   5.58 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Araguaia River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus mucipu Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   5.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Tocantins River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus nigrotaeniatus Dagosta & Pastana, 2014 Fr native   4.31 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso State (Ref. 94995). 
Characidae Creagrutus occidaneus Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native    6.59 cm SL male/unsexed    
Characidae Creagrutus petilus Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native    4.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Machado River, right bank tributary of Madeira River (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 97589. 
Characidae Creagrutus phasma Myers, 1927 Fr native   6.60 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Creagrutus runa Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   6.27 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Negro River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus saxatilis Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   8.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Tocantins River basin in Goiás and Distrito Federal (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus seductus Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   7.03 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Araguaia River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Creagrutus tuyuka Vari & Lima, 2003 Fr native   6.83 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Rio Tiquié, a tributary of the Rio Uaupés, in the Rio Negro basin of northwestern Brazil (Ref. 52414). 
Characidae Creagrutus varii Ribeiro, Benine & Figueiredo, 2004 Fr native   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from two localities in the upper Rio Paranaiba basin (Ref. 52412). 
Characidae Creagrutus vexillapinnus Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   5.04 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Creagrutus yudja Netto-Ferreira & Moreira, 2018 Fr native   3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Creagrutus yudja Pará, Altamira, Praia do Levi, rio Iriri, Rio Xingu basin (Ref. 122128). 
Characidae Creagrutus zephyrus Vari & Harold, 2001 Fr native   3.98 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Negro River (Ref. 38376). 
Cichlidae Crenicara latruncularium Kullander & Staeck, 1990 Fr native    8.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Guaporé drainage (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicara punctulata (Günther, 1863) Fr native    10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Amazon Basin and Amapá Grande River in Amapá State (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla acutirostris Günther, 1862 Fr endemic    23.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Tapajós and Aripuanã River basins (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Cupai, Amazonas, Brazil, 800 mi. from the sea (Ref. 12965, 12251). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla adspersa Heckel, 1840 Fr endemic  Guensa branca (Portuguese)   29.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Guaporé River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Guaporé, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla alta Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native  Jacundá (Portuguese)  16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Branco River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla anamiri Ito & Rapp Py-Daniel, 2015 Fr native   4.78 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle rio Xingu and in rio Bacajá, upstream of Volta Grande do Xingu (Ref. 104708). Status of threat: NT (nearly threatened) based on IUCN categories and criteria (Ref. 104708). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla brasiliensis (Bloch, 1792) Fr endemic  Jacundá (Portuguese)  7.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Ceará, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla britskii Kullander, 1982 Fr native    14.50 cm SL male/unsexed 7 TL Known from the Paraná River basin, in the Paraná River drainage upstream from Guaira (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Estado de São Paulo, mun. Promissão, R. Tietê system, km 143 on BR-153, above road in small brook (Ref. 33021). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla cametana Steindachner, 1911 Fr endemic   18.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Tocantins bei Cametá (Ref. 33021). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla celidochilus Casciotta, 1987 Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)  26.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 12251, 36377. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla chicha Varella, Kullander & Lima, 2012 Fr native   13.77 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Papagaio and tributaries, itself a tributary of the rio Juruena, a major headwater of the rio Tapajós in the state of Mato Grosso. Collected above and below the Cachoeira do Utiariti, a major (about 90 meters high) waterfall in the rio Papagaio (Ref. 91069). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla cincta Regan, 1905 Fr native    19.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Manaus, near Belem, Ilha Marajo (Ref. 9088). Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla compressiceps Ploeg, 1986 Fr endemic   5.73 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: rapids downstream of Jatobal (Ref. 33021). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla cyanonotus Cope, 1870 Fr native    14.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin in western Brazil (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla cyclostoma Ploeg, 1986 Fr endemic  Jacundá (Portuguese)   9.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Tucurui, residual pools downstream of stowage, after closing the stowage (Ref. 33021). Maybe threatened by extinction due to its restricted distribution in the rapids of Rio Tocantins, a biotope currently destroyed by hydroelectric power plants (Ref. 85327). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla empheres Lucena, 2007 Fr native   14.07 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, rio Chapecó, on the road Abelardo Luz-Coronel Firmino Martins, Abelardo Luz, state of Santa Catarina, MCP 40960.(holotype of Crenicichla empheres, 10.44 cm SL, male). Known from Rio Chapecó, upper rio Uruguay drainage (Ref. 75870). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla gaucho Lucena & Kullander, 1992 Fr native    12.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Uruguay River drainage, in the tributaries of the middle Uruguay River (Comandaí, Ijuí and Piratinim rivers) (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Rio Grando do Sul, arroio Passo do Alto, near Mineral, município of São Nicolau (Ref. 26688). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla geayi Pellegrin, 1903 Fr misidentification   18.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the country (Ref. 4537). Occurrence of this species in this country is not confirmed (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla hadrostigma Lucena, 2007 Fr native   11.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, rio Chapecó, on the old road Coronel de Freitas-Quilombo, Vila São Miguel, Coronel de Freitas, state of Santa Catarina, MCP 40959 (holotype of Crenicichla hadrostigma, 10.01cm SL, male). Known from Upper rio Uruguay drainage, rio Uruguay and rio Chapecó (Ref. 75870). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla haroldoi Luengo & Britski, 1974 Fr endemic    9.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla heckeli Ploeg, 1989 Fr endemic    5.22 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Trombetas River close to Cachoeira Porteira (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brasilìen, Staat Pará, Trombetas-System, Cachoeira Porteira (Ref. 33021). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla hemera Kullander, 1990 Fr endemic    9.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the upper Aripuanã River in the Madeira River drainage (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Mato Grosso, Rio Aripuanã drainage, headwater stream tributary to the Rio Cinta Larga where crossed by the road BR-174, 41 km from Juína (Ref. 26677). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla hummelincki Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    10.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Trombetas River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla igara Lucena & Kullander, 1992 Fr endemic  Joaninha (Portuguese)   31.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River drainage, in tributaries of the upper Uruguay River (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Santa Catarina, município Campos Novos, rio Canoas at Passo do Canoas, (road SC-458), on the road Tupitinga-Celso Ramos (Ref. 26688). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla iguapina Kullander & Lucena, 2006 Fr endemic    17.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the rio Ribeira de Iguaoe drainage in São Paulo (Ref. 57632). Also Ref. 84540. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla iguassuensis Haseman, 1911 Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)   33.00 cm SL male/unsexed 9.64 SL Known from the Paraná River basin, in the Iguaçu River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Porto União da Victoria, Rio Iguassú (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla inpa Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    16.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: State of Amazonas, Río Amazonas system, Ilha do Careiro (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla isbrueckeri Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    9.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Aripuanã River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: State of Mato Grosso, Madiera River system, Río Aripuanã, 3 km from Cachoeira de Dardanelos Humboldt (59°27'W, 10°10'S) (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla jaguarensis Haseman, 1911 Fr endemic    14.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla jegui Ploeg, 1986 Fr endemic  Jacundá (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Itupiranga, Brazil (Ref. 12251). Maybe threatened by extinction due to its restricted distribution in the rapids of Rio Tocantins, a biotope currently destroyed by hydroelectric power plants (Ref. 85327). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla johanna Heckel, 1840 Fr native  Jacundà (Portuguese), Jacunda (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Jacunda piranga (Portuguese), Joana guensa (Portuguese), Johanna guensa (Portuguese), Mariana (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese), Sabão (Portuguese)   28.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin and in Amapá State (Ref. 36377). Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla jupiaensis Britski & Luengo, 1968 Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)   9.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Paraná, no Salto de Urubupungá, entre os Estados de Mato Grosso e São Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla jurubi Lucena & Kullander, 1992 Fr endemic  Joaninha (Portuguese)   30.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585, 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Rio Grande do Sul, rio Marombas at bridge Irìneu Bornhausen. Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla labrina (Spix & Agassiz, 1831) Fr endemic    16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla lacustris (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native  Jacundá (Portuguese), Joaninha (Portuguese), Maria guensa (Portuguese), Maria guenza (Portuguese), Michola (Portuguese), Mixorne (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese), Truta brasileira (Portuguese)   35.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in coastal drainages of southeastern and eastern Brazil (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla lenticulata Heckel, 1840 Fr endemic  Jacunda (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Jacundá açu (Portuguese), Jacundá branco (Portuguese), Jacundá pinima (Portuguese), Jacundá piranga (Portuguese), Jacundá touro (Portuguese), Peixe sabão (Portuguese)   30.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio-negro, bei Marabitanas, Brazil (Ref. 33021). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla lepidota Heckel, 1840 Fr native  Guensa-verde (Portuguese), Guenza (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Joana mixola (Portuguese), Joana-guensa (Portuguese), Joaninha (Portuguese), João bobo (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese), Ruballo (Portuguese)   20.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Paraguay River drainage, middle and lower Uruguay River, Guaporé River drainage in the Amazon River basin, and along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State (Ref. 36377). Recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla lucenai Mattos, Schindler, Ottoni & Cheffe, 2014 Fr native   14.59 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio das Antas basin, Jacuí river drainage, dos Patos lagoon system, southern Brazil (Ref. 95826). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla lucius Cope, 1870 Fr native   16.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla lugubris Heckel, 1840 Fr native  Jacunda (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Mariana (Portuguese), Sabão (Portuguese)   32.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Branco, Negro and Uatumã rivers (Ref. 36377). Has been found in Manaus, Guapore River, Rio Capim, Rio Negro, etc. (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla macrophthalma Heckel, 1840 Fr native  Jacunda (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Negro, Uatumã, Tapajós, Xingu and Trombetas River basins (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Manaus (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla maculata Kullander & Lucena, 2006 Fr endemic    24.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from a limited area north of laguna dos Patos, namely, the lower rio Maquiné, lower rio Três Forquilhas, lagoa dos Quadros, lagoa do Palmital and lagoa Emboaba, State of Rio Grande do Sul; also found in the rio Tubarão drainage, ribeirão São Luis in the rio Itajai-Açu drainage and from rio Itapocu drainage in the State of Santa Catarina (Ref. 57632). Also Ref. 84540. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla marmorata Pellegrin, 1904 Fr endemic    28.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in southern tributaries of the Amazon River from Madeira River to the Tocantins River (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla menezesi Ploeg, 1991 Fr native    18.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: State of Maranhão, Caieira (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla minuano Lucena & Kullander, 1992 Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)   26.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River drainage, in tributaries of the middle an upper Uruguay River (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Rio Grande do Sul, rio Comandaí, on the road Porto Xavier-Porto Lucena (Ref. 26688). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla missioneira Lucena & Kullander, 1992 Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)   28.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River drainage, in tributaries of the upper and middle Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Rio Grande do Sul, rio Comandaí, on the road Porto Xavier-Porto Lucena (Ref. 26688) 
Cichlidae Crenicichla monicae Kullander & Varella, 2015 Fr native   27.25 cm SL male/unsexed ;22.43 cm SL female  Known from the lower Rio Uaupés at the village of Taracuá, Trovão and the Uaupés near the mouth, Nossa Senhora da Guia on the Rio Içana, and the tributary Rio Cubaté (Ref. 104137). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla mucuryna Ihering, 1914 Fr endemic    11.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Mucuri River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Theophilo Otoni, rìo Todos os Santos, affl. Do Mucury, Est. de Minas Geraes (Ref. 33021). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla niederleinii (Holmberg, 1891) Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)  23.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla notophthalmus Regan, 1913 Fr native  Jacunda (Portuguese)   7.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Negro River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Amazon R. at Manaus. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla pellegrini Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    15.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Aripuanã River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: State of Mato Grosso, Madeira River system, Río Aripuanã, Igarapé do Porto (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla percna Kullander, 1991 Fr endemic    22.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Xingu River at Cachoeira do Espelho and Altamira (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Pará, Rio Xingu drainage, Cachoeira do Espelho (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla phaiospilus Kullander, 1991 Fr endemic    24.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Xingu River drainage at Cachoeira von Martius and Goritire (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Pará, Rio Xingu drainage, município de São Felix do Xingu, Rio Fresco, Aldeia Gorotire (Ref. 26750). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla ploegi Varella, Loeb, Lima & Kullander, 2018 Fr endemic   19.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;11.59 cm SL female   
Cichlidae Crenicichla prenda Lucena & Kullander, 1992 Fr native    8.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Uruguay river basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Santa Catarina, rio Jacutinga, on the road BR 283 Seara-Concórdia (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla proteus Cope, 1872 Fr native   15.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Purus basin, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla punctata Hensel, 1870 Fr native  Joana mixola (Portuguese)   23.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Laguna dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim basins in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 36377). Type locality: aus dem Guahyba bei Porto Alegre [originally also: Bächen des Urwaldes. Waldbächen von der deutschen Colonie Sta. Cruz in Rio Grande do Sul] (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla pydanielae Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    17.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Amazon River basin, in the Trombetas River drainage above Cachoeira Porteira (Ref. 36377). Type locality: State of Pará, Trombetes River system, Igarapé at km 10 of BR 163 at level of bridge (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla regani Ploeg, 1989 Fr native    7.93 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Trombetas River at Cachoeira Porteira (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Left trib. to Cachoeira Porteira, Rio Trombetas system, Pará, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla reticulata (Heckel, 1840) Fr, Fi native  Peixe sabão (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese), Peixe sabao (Portuguese)   21.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla rosemariae Kullander, 1997 Fr endemic  Rubanana (Portuguese)   24.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Suiá-Missu River, upper Xingu River drainage, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Pará, Rio Xingu drainage, Córrego do Gato. Recorded from the Rio Suiá-Missu, Rio Xingu drainage (Ref. 26135). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla santosi Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Machado River of Rondônia (Ref. 36377). Type locality: State of Rondônia, Rio Madeira system, Río Machado, Jiparaná: Río Urupa (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr misidentification  Jacundà (Portuguese), Guensa verde (Portuguese), Guenza verde (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Jacundá coroa (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported to occur in this country (Ref. 4537). Occurrence in the country not confirmed (Ref. 26372, 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla scottii (Eigenmann, 1907) Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)   16.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River drainage (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla semicincta Steindachner, 1892 Fr native    17.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Acre River basin (Ref. 97592). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla semifasciata (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Joana-guensa (Portuguese), Joaninha (Portuguese)   17.66 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River, Paraná River basin in the (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla stocki Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    25.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Tocantins River basin. Type locality: State of Pará, Río Tocantins system, Capuaraná (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla strigata Günther, 1862 Fr native  Borboleta pintada (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Mariana (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese), Sabão (Portuguese)   30.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: River Capin; River Cupai (800 miles from the sea) (Ref. 36377) 
Cichlidae Crenicichla tendybaguassu Lucena & Kullander, 1992 Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese)   15.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River drainage, in tributaries of the middle and upper Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Rio Grande do Sul, município Santo Angelo, río Piratinim, Fazenda dos Hinz, Coímbra (Ref. 26688). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla ternetzi Norman, 1926 Fr native  Jacunda (Portuguese)  24.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Crenicichla tesay Casciotta & Almirón, 2009 Fr native    11.51 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Crenicichla tigrina Ploeg, Jégu & Ferreira, 1991 Fr endemic    28.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Trombetas River near Cachoeira Porteira (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brésil, Est. Pará, Rio Trombetas, au niveau de L'embouchure de L'Igarapé Caxipacoré (Ref. 33021). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla tingui Kullander & Lucena, 2006 Fr endemic    19.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio Itapocu drainage and in small coastal rivers draining to the baía de Babitonga (rio Cubatão drainage) and the baía de Paranaguá (rio Jacarei and rio Cachoeira drainages) (Ref. 57632). Also Ref. 84540. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla urosema Kullander, 1990 Fr endemic    6.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Tapajós River at São Luiz (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Brazil, State of Pará, Rio Tapajós, rocky pool at São Luiz upstream of Itaituba (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla virgatula Ploeg, 1991 Fr endemic    6.62 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin in the upper Branco River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: State of Roraìma, Río Negro, Río Branco, Río Uraricoera, Ilha de Maracá (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Crenicichla vittata Heckel, 1840 Fr native  Joaninha (Portuguese), Jacarenguena (Portuguese), Jacundá (Portuguese), Joana guenza (Portuguese), Joana-guensa (Portuguese), Nhacundá (Portuguese)   26.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower and middle Rio Uruguai (Ref. 26688). Also found in the Paraguay River, Paraná River basin (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 36377. 
Cichlidae Crenicichla wallacii Regan, 1905 Fr native    8.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Crenuchidae Crenuchus spilurus Günther, 1863 Fr native    5.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37059). Also Ref. 12225. 
Loricariidae Cryptancistrus similis Fisch-Muller, Mol & Covain, 2018 Fr native   6.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Parú de Oeste River based on a single specimen (Ref. 116863). 
Characidae Ctenobrycon alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee, 1907) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Ctenobrycon hauxwellianus (Cope, 1870) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese), Marupiri (Portuguese), Matapiri (Portuguese), Sardinha (Portuguese) common (usually seen) 8.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon (Ref. 38376) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Locally abundant (Ref. 598). 
Characidae Ctenobrycon multiradiatus (Steindachner, 1876) Fr native     
Characidae Ctenobrycon spilurus (Valenciennes, 1850) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   8.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Ctenocheirodon pristis Malabarba & Jerep, 2012 Fr native   3.28 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.36 cm SL female  Found in several locations in Rio Tocantins drainage (Ref. 91049) 
Gobiidae Ctenogobius shufeldti (Jordan & Eigenmann, 1887) Fr, Br native    8.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Gobiidae Ctenogobius thoropsis (Pezold & Gilbert, 1987) Fr, Br, M native   4.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: USNM 264992 (Ref. 33570). 
Xenocyprididae Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) Fr introduced  Cara-capim (Portuguese), Carpa capim (Portuguese)   150 cm TL male/unsexed  Reported from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys coxipone Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira, 2015 Fr native   2.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.00 cm SL female  Found in Rio Cuiaba drainage, Rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso State (Ref. 113800). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys insperatus (Britski & Garavello, 2003) Fr native   3.02 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Upper Rio Paraná drainage in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states (Ref. 53011). Type locality, Rio Capivara, Rio Tietê drainage, Botucatu, São Paulo State (Ref. 53011). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys itaim Roxo, Dias, Silva & Oliveira, 2017 Fr native   2.49 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the following six small streams of the rio Tapajós basin: Igarapé Cipó, Igarapé Nambuaí (type locality), Igarapé Presidente, Igarapé São José, Igarapé Urubutu and rio Tracuá (Ref. 118146). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys karipuna Silva, Roxo, Melo & Oliveira, 2016 Fr native   2.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from a small stream of the rio Cassiporé, an Atlantic coastal river of northern Amapá and a small stream reaching the rio Jari (Ref. 112322). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys luteofrenatus (Britski & Garavello, 2007) Fr native   3.05 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio Tapajós basin in Mato Grosso State (Ref. 75061). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys oliveirai (Roxo, Zawadzki & Troy, 2014) Fr native   2.84 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.04 cm SL female  Found in four small to medium-sized streams, the ribeirão Salto Grande, ribeirão Keller, rio Mourão, and the ribeirão Cambira, all tributaries of the rio Ivaí in the upper rio Paraná basin (Ref. 95507). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys paresi (Roxo, Zawadzki & Troy, 2014) Fr native   2.62 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in three small tributaries (riacho Águas Claras, riacho Maracaña and riacho São Jorge) that drain to the rio Sepotuba, in the upper rio Paraguay basin (Ref. 95507). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys piracanjuba (Martins & Langeani, 2012) Fr native   2.71 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Curculionichthys sabaji Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira, 2015 Fr native   2.36 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in five localities in the Rio Xingu basin: two at Rio 13 de Maio, one at Rio Coronel Vanick, one at Rio Couto de Magalhães and one at Rio Curuá (Ref. 113800). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys sagarana Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira, 2015 Fr native   2.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.44 cm SL female  Found along Rio das Velhas drainage in the following localities: one at Rio 13 de Maio, one at Pardo Grande, and one at Rio Curimataí, all in Rio São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais State (Ref. 113800). 
Loricariidae Curculionichthys scaius Calegari, Gamarra & Reis, 2018 Fr native  abundant (always seen in some numbers) 2.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Curculionichthys scaius, Brazil, Mato Grosso, Aripuanã, creek on road to Lontra, tributary to the Aripuanã River drainage, Madeira River basin (Ref. 119375).

Conservation status: The extinction risk of this species is assessed as low despite limited knowledge of its geographic distribution. It is so far known from a single locality in a creek tributary to the Aripuanã River, Madeira River basin, but additional collecting effort in the region will likely reveal a broader distribution. The species was naturally abundant and specific threats were not detected in the area, which is largely well preserved. Thus, it is tentatively categorized as Least Concern (LC) according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria (Ref. 119375). 

Loricariidae Curculionichthys tukana Roxo, Dias, Silva & Oliveira, 2017 Fr native   2.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the following five small rivers of the rio Tocantins basin: ribeirão Bofe, córrego Bom Jardim, rio Parauapebas, rio Sossego and a small unnamed tributary of rio Caraíbas (Ref. 118146). 
Curimatidae Curimata acutirostris Vari & Reis, 1995 Fr endemic    8.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Araguaia River basin (Ref. 38013). 
Curimatidae Curimata aspera Günther, 1868 Fr native   21.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the western section of the Amazon basin (Ref. 34109). Also Ref. 38013. 
Curimatidae Curimata cisandina (Allen, 1942) Fr native   12.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Branco River and middle and upper portions of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38013). Recoded from the middle and upper Rio Solimoes (Ref. 26629). Also Ref. 34109. 
Curimatidae Curimata cyprinoides (Linnaeus, 1766) Fr native  Branquinha (Portuguese), Branquiha-baiao (Portuguese), Branquinha baião (Portuguese), Branquinha-baião (Portuguese), Durão (Portuguese), Solta baião (Portuguese)   23.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Amazon and from Rio Tocantins (Ref. 12225). Also Ref. 26629. 
Curimatidae Curimata incompta Vari, 1984 Fr native    16.70 cm SL male/unsexed   
Curimatidae Curimata inornata Vari, 1989 Fr, Fi endemic  Branquinha (Portuguese)   13.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle and southern portions of Amazon River basin, Tocantins River (Ref. 38013). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). Museum: edge of river, Itaituba, Rio Tapajós, Pará, MZUSP 28648 (holotype of C. inornata, 12.7 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 34109, 38013. 
Curimatidae Curimata knerii Steindachner, 1876 Fr native    17.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 26629, 38013). Also Ref. 34109, 38013. 
Curimatidae Curimata macrops Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr endemic    17.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Poti and Parnaíba rivers in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 26629, 38013). Also Ref. 34109. 
Curimatidae Curimata ocellata Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr native    22.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon and Negro River basins (Ref. 38013). Also Ref. 26629. 
Curimatidae Curimata roseni Vari, 1989 Fr native    19.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 26629, 38013). Museum: cataract pool, Cachoeira do Bem Querer, Rio Branco, Roraima, MZUSP 28651 (holotype of C. roseni, 13.18 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Curimatidae Curimata vittata (Kner, 1858) Fr native    19.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38013). Also Ref. 12371. 
Curimatidae Curimatella alburnus (Müller & Troschel, 1844) Fr native  Saguiru de rabo amarelo (Portuguese)   18.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Pará in Rio Maicá and Lagoa along margin of Rio Tocantins, near Baiao; Roraima in Rio Branco, Maraá; Amazonas in Rio Negro, Paraná de Janauacá, Paraná do Janauari, Lago Janauari near Manaus, Lago Grande de Manacapuru, Rio Solimoes above Manacapuru, Rio Tefé in Mucura,Igarapé Chefe, Lago Beruri, Rio Purus, Lago Castro at the mouth of Rio Purus, Lago Urini at the mouth of Rio Japurá, Lago do Coarí, Rio Jutaí, Rio Javarí along Brazilian-Peruvian border ; Mato Grosso in Rio Guaporé and Rio Branco (Ref. 28798). Also Ref. 38013. 
Curimatidae Curimatella dorsalis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) Fr native  Curimbatazinho (Portuguese)   14.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Negro, Rio Paraguai and lagoons along Rio Tocantins (Ref. 28798). Also Ref. 38013. 
Curimatidae Curimatella immaculata (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese), Saburu reis (Portuguese)   18.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins and Rio Madeira. 
Curimatidae Curimatella lepidura (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) Fr endemic  Manjuba (Portuguese), Aragu (Portuguese), Saguiru (Portuguese)   11.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio São Francisco of eastern Brazil (Ref. 28798, 38013). 
Curimatidae Curimatella meyeri (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native    17.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Amazonas (Rio Madeira, Rio Purus, Lower Rio Negro, Lago Janauari, Paraná do Mocambo near Parantins, Lago Amaná at the mouth of Rio Japurá, Igarapé Manduaçu, Igarapé Xicanga, Humaita), Rondonia (Rio Madeira, Calama) and Acre (Rio Juruá, Cruzeiro do Sul). 
Curimatidae Curimatopsis cryptica Vari, 1982 Fr native    6.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Brazilian Amazon (Ref. 12225). Museum: Igarapé Anapichi leading to Rio Negro, MZUSP 15975 (Ref. 27925). 
Curimatidae Curimatopsis evelynae Géry, 1964 Fr, Fi native    4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38013). Also Ref. 4537. 
Curimatidae Curimatopsis macrolepis (Steindachner, 1876) Fr, Fi native    6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38013). Found in the streams of the rio Machado Basin, Rondônia State (Ref. 97589). Also Ref. 4537. 
Curimatidae Curimatopsis microlepis Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr native   8.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38013). Type locality: Jatuarana, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Curimatidae Curimatopsis myersi Vari, 1982 Fr native    4.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paraguay River basin (Ref. 38013). 
Cynodontidae Cynodon gibbus (Agassiz, 1829) Fr, Fi native  Icanga (Portuguese), Cachorrinha (Portuguese), Cacudinha (Portuguese), Cacunda (Portuguese), Minguilista (Portuguese), Peixe-cachorro (Portuguese)   32.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38270). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). Also Ref. 598. 
Cynodontidae Cynodon septenarius Toledo-Piza, 2000 Fr native   31.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38270). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias altus Costa, 2001 Fr endemic   13.33 cm SL male/unsexed ;9.39 cm SL female  Known only from some localities along rio São Francisco floodplains, right bank, Boa Vista do Lagamar and Paratinga, Bahia (Ref. 40938). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias attenuatus Costa, 2001 Fr endemic   10.53 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.08 cm SL female  Known from some localities along rio São Francisco floodplains, between Bom Jesus da Lapa and about 33 km to the south, Bahia, NE Brazil (Ref. 40938). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias elegans Costa, 2017 Fr native   3.79 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.69 cm SL female  Known only from a temporary pool in the Verde Grande River drainage in Bahia (Ref. 118117). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias gibbus Costa, 2001 Fr endemic   9.81 cm SL male/unsexed ;8.73 cm SL female  Known from the middle São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36579). Type locality, temporary pool 9.5 km N of Sítio do Mato, Bahia, Brazil (Ref. 40938). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias gilbertoi Costa, 1998 Fr endemic   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.60 cm SL female  Bahia: temporary pond about 30 km South of Bom Jesus da Lapa, near rio São Francisco (type locality). All types from the same locality. Holotype: MZUSP 52304 (1 male, 46.2 mm SL); Paratypes: MZUSP (1 female 34.1), UFRJ 4470 (1 male 40.0, 2 females 34.3 & 37.1), UFRL 4471 (2 females 32.9 & 35.9, cleared and stained). Also Ref. 40938, 36579. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias gorutuba Costa, 2017 Fr native   8.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from pools in the floodplains of the Gorutuba River in Janaúba, Minas Gerais (Ref. 118117). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias griseus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil, 1990 Fr endemic    8.34 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.52 cm SL female  Known only from its type locality, a temporary pool close to the rio Paranã, upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás, central Brazil (Ref. 40938). Also Ref. 27139, 36579. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias itapicuruensis Costa, 2001 Fr endemic  Peixe-sabão (Portuguese)  8.74 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.56 cm SL female  Known only from the temporary pool in Capim Grosso, rio Itapicururú basin, Bahia, Brazil (Ref. 40938). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias leptocephalus Costa & Brasil, 1993 Fr endemic   12.53 cm SL male/unsexed ;8.94 cm SL female  Known from the middle São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias microphthalmus Costa & Brasil, 1995 Fr endemic  Peixe-de-nuvem (Portuguese)  12.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;5.02 cm SL female  Known from NE Brazil, in the Jaguaribe and Mossoró river basins, eastern Ceará and western Rio Grande do Norte states (Ref. 40938). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias obscurus Costa, 2014 Fr, Thr native   4.93 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.86 cm SL female  Occurs in vestigial small pools in Paramirim river drainage, São Francisco River basin. Considered a critically endangered species due to the considerable agricultural pressure in the few remaining habitats and the reduced area of occupancy (Ref. 97357). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias ochraceus Costa, 2014 Fr, Thr native  scarce (very unlikely) 5.73 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.21 cm SL female  Found only in the area of the type locality, close to the road BR-349, about 12 km W from the town of Bom Jesus da Lapa. Another specimen was caught in a pool near the village of Malhada, about 135 km S of the type locality, suggesting a wider geographical distribution in the middle São Franciso basin. This species should be classified as endangered due to its rarity and the highly deforested state of the area of the type locality (Ref. 97357). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias oticus Costa, 2014 Fr native   8.23 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.07 cm SL female  Found only in the Verde river drainage, near the village of Pindaí, São Francisco River basin. The current reduced area of occupancy suggests that this species could be considered vulnerable (Ref. 97357). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias paraguassuensis Costa, Suzart & Nielsen, 2007 Fr native    Known from the Paraguaçu River basin in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 58745). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias parietalis Costa, 2014 Fr native   7.65 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.39 cm SL female  Found in temporary pools in the floodplains of both banks of the Verde Grande river, close to the village of Gado Bravo, São Francisco River basin (Ref. 97357) 
Rivulidae Cynolebias parnaibensis Costa, Ramos, Alexandre & Ramos, 2010 Fr native   5.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Estado do Piauí, Município de Jacobina do Piauí, seasonal lagoon at the right side of the road between Conceição do Canindé and Jacobina do Piauí. UFPB 6719 (holotype of Cynolebias parnaibensis, 5.45 cm SL, male) (Ref. 84460). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias perforatus Costa & Brasil, 1991 Fr endemic   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;9.04 cm SL female  Known from the middle São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias porosus Steindachner, 1876 Fr endemic  Peixe de nuvem (Portuguese)  15.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Atlantic coastal plains (Ref. 36579). Known only from the São Francisco river floodplain between the city of Petrolina and village of Ibaré. Considered criticically endangered due to the sharp reduction of habitats (Ref. 97357). Also Ref. 27139, 40938. 
Rivulidae Cynolebias rectiventer Costa, 2014 Fr native  abundant (always seen in some numbers) 10.18 cm SL male/unsexed ;8.12 cm SL female  Found only in two adjacent temporart lagoons situated in the floodplain of a seasonal tributary to the Verde river, about 3 km distant from that tributary and about 18 km W from the Verde river, which is a right-bank tributary of the lower-middle São Francisco River Basin in the Bahia state (Ref. 97357). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias roseus Costa, 2014 Fr native   4.66 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.23 cm SL female  Recorded from a single locality near the town of Barra, in the left-bank floodplain of the São Francisco River. Found in a remnant temporary pool, in an area occupied by cattle farms and plantations (Ref. 97357). 
Rivulidae Cynolebias vazabarrisensis Costa, 2001 Fr endemic  Peixe-sabão (Portuguese)  7.64 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.95 cm SL female  Known only from the type locality , 33 km S of Bendegó, Bahia, rio Vazabarris basin, NE Brazil. 
Rivulidae Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa, 2002 Fr native   3.89 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.93 cm SL female  Found in the coastal plains adjacent to the outer edge of the lagoa dos Patos, southern Brazil. Type locality, temporary pool, road BR-101, 5 km N São José do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 42931). 
Rivulidae Cynopoecilus intimus Costa, 2002 Fr native   2.66 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.16 cm SL female  Known from upper rio Jacuí, río Vacacaí drainage, southern Brazil. Type locality, temporary swamp close to a stream tributary to rio Vacacaí, rio Jacuí basin, road BR-392, 6 km NW of Vila Block, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 42931). 
Rivulidae Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan, 1912) Fr native  Gaúcho (Portuguese)  4.34 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.53 cm SL female  Known from the stream floodplains along inner edge of lagoa dos Patos and coastal floodplains on the outer edge of lagoa Mirim, southern Brazil and eastern Uruguay (Ref. 42931). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Cynopoecilus multipapillatus Costa, 2002 Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.70 cm SL female  Found in the coastal plains of northern Rio Grande do Sul state and southern Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Type locality, temporary pool between road RS-787 and lagoa da Fortaleza, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 42931). 
Rivulidae Cynopoecilus nigrovittatus Costa, 2002 Fr native   4.43 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.20 cm SL female  Known from the lower Jacuí basin, southern Brazil. Type locality, rio Caí floodplains, Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 42931). Also Ref. 98301. 
Rivulidae Cynopoecilus notabilis Ferrer, Wingert & Malabarba, 2014 Fr native   4.05 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.15 cm SL female  Found only in the type locality, a temporary pool in upper portion of rio Gravataí basin, laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 98301). 
Characidae Cynopotamus amazonum (Günther, 1868) Fr native  Cacunda (Portuguese), Crica (Portuguese)   18.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36811). 
Characidae Cynopotamus argenteus (Valenciennes, 1836) Fr native  Saicanga (Portuguese)  29.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Cynopotamus essequibensis Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native  Cacunda (Portuguese)  16.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Cynopotamus gouldingi Menezes, 1987 Fr native    16.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Madeira River basin (Ref. 36811). Museum: Rio Madeira at Calama, Territory of Rondônia, MZUSP 35474 (holotype, 15.2 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Cynopotamus juruenae Menezes, 1987 Fr native   8.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Juruena River basin (Ref. 36811). Museum: upper Rio Juruena, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 35475 (holotype, 8.5 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Cynopotamus kincaidi (Schultz, 1950) Fr native  Saicanga (Portuguese), Peixe-cachorro (Portuguese)   25.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 36811) and Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Characidae Cynopotamus tocantinensis Menezes, 1987 Fr native  Cacunda (Portuguese)  21.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36811). Museum: Igarapé Pojuca, Rio Itacaiunas, Serra dos Carajás, Pará, MZUSP (holotype, 15.4 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Cynopotamus xinguano Menezes, 2007 Fr native   15.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the middle-upper tributaries of rio Xingu basin (Ref. 72392). 
Sciaenidae Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède, 1801) Fr, Br, M, Fi native  Tacupapirerna (Portuguese), Calafetão (Portuguese), Cambucu (Portuguese), Cambuçu (Portuguese), Cambugu (Portuguese), Cambussu (Portuguese), Cupá (Portuguese), Guatupucá (Portuguese), Pescada (Portuguese), Pescada Amarela (Portuguese), Pescada vermelha (Portuguese), Pescada-amarela (Portuguese), Pescada-cascuda (Portuguese), Pescada-de-escama (Portuguese), Pescada-dourada (Portuguese), Pescada-selvagem (Portuguese), Pescada-ticupá (Portuguese), Pescada-verdadeira (Portuguese), Pescadinha-de-alto-mar (Portuguese), Tacupapirema (Portuguese), Ticoá (Portuguese), Ticupá (Portuguese), Tipuca (Portuguese), Tucupapirema (Portuguese)  110 cm TL male/unsexed 39.9 TL Caught by shrimp trawl in Pirambu, Sergipe (Ref. 118626). 
Sciaenidae Cynoscion steindachneri (Jordan, 1889) Fr, Br, M native  Pescada-verdadeira (Portuguese), Juruapara (Portuguese), Pescada (Portuguese), Pescada-branca (Portuguese), Pescada-comum (Portuguese), Pescada-jaguara (Portuguese)  110 cm TL male/unsexed  C: Refs. 5217, 65987, 94486; M: Ref. 65987; O: Ref. 65987. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax abramoides (Kner, 1858) Fr, Fi native  Branquinha (Portuguese), Piratipióca (Portuguese)  21.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: mouth of Rio Negro, Amazon, NMW 67402 (holotype of C. abramoides, 13.3 cm SL) (Ref. 11334). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax aninha Wosiacki & Miranda, 2014 Fr native   3.85 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the Rio Mopeco, a left bank tributary of the Rio Paru, left of the lower Rio Amazonas in Pará State (Ref. 94769). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax boiadeiro Melo, 2017 Fr native   6.07 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the headwaters of the rio Araguaia, Amazon basin in the municipality of Alto Araguaia, Goiás/Mato Grosso state boundary in central Brazil (Ref. 117339). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax festivus Vari, 1992 Fr native   16.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Pará and Amazonas (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 38013. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax gangamon Vari, 1992 Fr native   4.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38013). Museum: Pará, Rio Tapajos, Monte Cristo, Lago da Santa Clara, MZUSP 022037 (holotype of C. gangamon); MZUSP 41752, USNM 309290 (paratypes). Mato Grosso, Rio Arinos, Porto dos Gauchos, USNM 267991, MZUSP 41754 (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax gilbert (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Fr native  Curimabatá (Portuguese), Papaterra (Portuguese), Saguiru (Portuguese)   24.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Specimens were collected from the rivers of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, and Bahia (Ref. 11334). Museum: Rio Doce, Espirito Santo, MZUSP 1958 (paratype of P. grandocule, 12.3 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax gillii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903) Fr native  Curimbatazinho (Portuguese)   10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rivers of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 38013. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax gouldingi Vari, 1992 Fr native    15.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the rivers of Amapá, and Capim, Tocantins, and lower Xingu River basins in Pará (Ref. 11334). Museum: Amapá, Rio Cupixi, along the road to Serra Navio, from the mouth of a rainforest stream, MZUSP 41762 (holotype, 8.67 cm SL); USNM 268010 and MZUSP 41763 (paratypes) (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925, 38016. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax helleri (Steindachner, 1910) Fr native  Branquinha (Portuguese)  10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in Cupixi River in Amapa (Ref. 38013). Museum: Rio Cupixi, road to Serra do Navio, USNM 267965 (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 12225. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax leucostictus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) Fr native    15.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Amapá, Amazonas, , Roraima, Mato Grosso, and Rondônia (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 38013. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax mestomyllon Vari, 1992 Fr native   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Cachoeira de Bicho-Açu along the Marauiá River, Rio Negro basin. Museum: Cachoeira de Bicho-Açu along the Rio Marauiá, Rio Negro Basin, Amazonas, MZUSP 41755 (holotype, 3.49 cm SL); MZUSP 41756 and USNM 309289 (paratypes) (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925, 38013. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax modestus (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) Fr, Fi native  Saguiru (Portuguese), Saguirú (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 16.20 cm SL male/unsexed 7.3 TL Known from the fresh waters of Sao Paulo, Distrito Federal, and Paraná. Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). Museum: Sao Paulo, Rio Batalha, tributary of Rio Tietê, near Bauru, CAS 20299 (holotype of Curimatorbis modestus, 8.65 cm SL); MZUSP 1350, 5250-1 (paratype) (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925, 31923. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax multilineatus (Myers, 1927) Fr native   10.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River (Ref. 38013). Museum: Amazonas: Rio Negro below Daraa, USNM 274102, 274103. Rio Negro at Bucuri, CAS 58605 (holotype of C. multilineatus, formerly IU 17672); CAS-SU 58986. Rio Paduari, MZUSP 21161 (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 1672. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax naegelii (Steindachner, 1881) Fr native  Saguiru (Portuguese)   19.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;19.00 cm TL female 7 TL Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 38013). Museum: vicinity of Rio Janeiro, NMW 68.808 (holotype of C. nagelii, 11 cm SL) (Ref. 11334). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax nigripinnis Vari, 1992 Fr native   6.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in central and eastern portions of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38013). Known from Pará, Roraima, and Amazonas. Museum: Praia do Xeruini, Rio Branco, Roraima, MZUSP 42025 (holotype, 5.16 cm SL); MZUSP 42026, USNM 311109 (paratypes) (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax notatus (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native    14.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Pará, Amazonas, and Mato Grosso (Ref. 11334). Found in Tocantins and Capim River basins (Ref. 38013). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax pinnilepis Vari, Zanata & Camelier, 2010 Fr native   10.12 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Gongogi and Rio Gavião, tributaries of Rio de Contas, a relatively small coastal drainage in Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Possibly endemic to the Rio de Contas drainage as extensive ichthyological collecting efforts through all of the main coastal rivers across Bahia in recent years failed to yield samples of this species from outside the Rio de Contas drainage. Occurs in small rivers with relatively slow currents and somewhat turbid water and also in shallow areas of a reservoir along the Rio Gongogi. These areas have muddy substrates to some degree, with mud particularly prevalent along the Rio do Banco where large amounts of decomposing vegetation covered the river bottom (Ref. 85320). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax platanus (Günther, 1880) Fr native  Birú (Portuguese), Curimbatazinho (Portuguese)   13.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Ibicui, between Sao Rafael and Cacequi, MCP 9370. Rio Ibicui, near mouth, municipio de Itaqui, USNM 295976; MZUSP 39784. Rio Uruguai, Itaqui, USNM 295979; MZUSP 1735, 1431. Rio Uruguai, USNM 295977. Itaqui, MZUSP 1735 (Ref. 11334). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax plumbeus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) Fr native  Sabaru (Portuguese), Pira miri (Portuguese)   17.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rivers of Pará, Amazonas, Roraima, Rondonia, and Mato Grosso (Ref. 11334). Found in the Amazon and Tocantin River basins (Ref. 38013), rio Machado Basin, Rondônia State (Ref. 97589). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax saladensis (Meinken, 1933) Fr, Fi native  Birú (Portuguese), Biru (Portuguese)   9.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Grande do Sul: Rio Sanga Funda, Rodovia BR 101, Osorio, MCP 8532. Km 16 on BR 116, between Porto Alegre and Pelotas, USNM 220578. Along road between Porto Alegre and Pelotas, USNM 296374. Along highway BR 116, between Porto Alegre and Pelotas, MZUSP 21670. Arroio Don Marcos, along BR 290, MCP 8414 (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 4537. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax sanctigabrielis Melo & Vari, 2014 Fr native   6.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper rio Negro, Amazon basin (Ref. 96871). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax santacatarinae (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) Fr native  Saguairú (Portuguese), Peixe-Duro (Portuguese), Roncador (Portuguese), Saguaru (Portuguese)   20.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the coastal rivers of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, and southern Sao Paulo (Ref. 11334). Museum: Santa Catarina, MZUSP 1806 (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 38013. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax signatus Vari, 1992 Fr native   3.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Goiás, Rio Vermelho (a tributary of the Rio Araguaia of the Rio Tocantins system), MZUSP 41757 (holotype, 3.34 cm SL); MZUSP 41758 and USNM 308392 (paratypes) (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax spilotus (Vari, 1987) Fr native  Biru (Portuguese)  10.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Santa Maria, between Dom Pedrito and Livramento, MZUSP 37133 (holotype of C. spilota, 5.63 cm SL) (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax spiluropsis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) Fr native    9.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the fresh water of Amazonas, Mato Grosso, and Rondonia states (Ref. 11334). Found in rio Machado basin (Ref. 97589). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax spilurus (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Branquinha (Portuguese), Curimbatazinho (Portuguese)  10.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the fresh water of Roraima and Amazonas (Ref. 11334). Occurs in the upper Branco River (Ref. 38013). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax stilbolepis Vari, 1992 Fr native   17.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Xingu, Belo Monte, MZUSP 41759 (holotype, 1045 cm SL); MZUSP 41760 (paratype). Rio Tocantins, USNM 267985; MZUSP 21283. Rio Araguaia, MZUSP 4849 (Ref. 11334). Also Ref. 27925. 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax vanderi (Britski, 1980) Fr native   6.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 38013). Specimens collected from Sao Paulo, Corumbatai (Ref. 11334). Museum: Corumbataí, Sao Paolo, MZUSP 4325 (holotype of C. vanderi, 4.5 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax vexillapinnus Vari, 1992 Fr native   6.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38013). Museum: Amazonas, Lago Terra Preta, januari, USNM 229173 - 229174. Rio Solimoes: Ilha Marchantaria, INPA uncat. Lake near Manaus, USNM 296232; Lago Marchantaria, USNM 268045, 313443. Mouth of Rio Negro, NMW 68815 (Ref. 11334). 
Curimatidae Cyphocharax voga (Hensel, 1870) Fr native  Biru (Portuguese)  26.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 11334). Also recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). 
Cyprinidae Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Fr, Fi introduced  Carpa (Portuguese), Carpa de escama (Portuguese), Carpa-comum (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 120 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded in the Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076) and the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 1739. 
Loricariidae Dekeyseria amazonica Rapp Py-Daniel, 1985 Fr native    17.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found mainly in Solimões River basin and also in the middle and lower Amazon River basin (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 27116. 
Loricariidae Dekeyseria brachyura (Kner, 1854) Fr endemic   16.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Negro River basin (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Dekeyseria picta (Kner, 1854) Fr endemic   14.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Negro River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Dekeyseria pulchra (Steindachner, 1915) Fr native  Brazil-butterfly (English)  10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro River (Ref. 36713). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Dekeyseria scaphirhyncha (Kner, 1854) Fr endemic   21.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Delturus angulicauda (Steindachner, 1877) Fr native   18.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Mucuri at Santa Clara; Rio Parahyba, se. Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Delturus brevis Reis & Pereira, 2006 Fr native   18.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, io Araçuaí upstream of its mouth on Rio Jequitinhonha, Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 4-12 Sept. 1989, MZUSP 69858 (holotype of Delturus brevis, 15.21 cm SL, male). Known from Rio Jequitinhonha basin in eastern Brazil (Ref. 57859). 
Loricariidae Delturus carinotus (La Monte, 1933) Fr endemic    23.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Doce, Espirito Santo, e. Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Delturus parahybae Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr native  Cascudo laje (Portuguese)   21.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Parahyba, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Cetopsidae Denticetopsis epa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native   4.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins (Ref. 56045). 
Cetopsidae Denticetopsis seducta Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna, 2005 Fr native    5.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Deuterodon aphos (Zanata & Akama, 2004) Fr native   5.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Lençois, a tributary of rio Paraguaçu, which is a relatively small, eastern drainage in Bahia State (Ref. 54751). 
Characidae Deuterodon burgerai (Zanata & Camelier, 2009) Fr native   5.44 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in córrego Água Boa, a streamlet on the road between Floresta Azul and Almadina, tributary of riacho Pancadinha, itself a tributary of rio Almada, a coastal drainage on southern Bahia (Ref. 81202). 
Characidae Deuterodon giton (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native  Piaba do Rio Paraíba (Portuguese)   8.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Paraíba do Sur River basin and coastal streams of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Deuterodon hamatilis (Camelier & Zanata, 2014) Fr native   4.37 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Paraguaçu basin in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State (Ref. 95041). 
Characidae Deuterodon hastatus (Myers, 1928) Fr native     
Characidae Deuterodon heterostomus (Eigenmann, 1911) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese), Mimic scale-eating tetra (English), Lambari-prata (Portuguese)   8.10 cm SL male/unsexed ;10.40 cm SL female  Type locality: Campos on Rio Parahyba, Brazil (Ref. 26282). Found in the coastal rivers of SE Brazil, from Espírito Santo to São Paulo. Caught by casting net, bow-net and hook (Ref. 40388). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Deuterodon iguape Eigenmann, 1907 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  9.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Paulo (Ref. 598). Found in the Ribeira de Iguape River Basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Deuterodon intermedius (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native    7.27 cm SL male/unsexed    
Characidae Deuterodon janeiroensis (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native  Lambari do rio (Portuguese)   11.40 cm SL male/unsexed ;10.60 cm SL female  Recorded from Betari River (Apiaí - SP) - Ribiera do Iguape, Costal Rivers (Ref. 85192). 
Characidae Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  12.60 cm TL male/unsexed 6.4 TL Recorded from coastal basins between Cubatão (northern) River, Santa Catarina and the Nhundiaquara River basin, Paraná (Ref. 38376). Museum: Rio Garuvá, Paraná, Garuvá, Santa Catarina, MZUSP 43765 (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Deuterodon longirostris (Steindachner, 1907) Fr native   9.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Cubatao (southern) river in Santa Catarina (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Deuterodon luetkenii (Boulenger, 1887) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  9.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in coastal river drainages and Uruguay River basin in Rio Grande do Sul; Paraíba do Sul River in Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 38376). Also recorded from the Paraguay basin (Ref. 38376) and the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Deuterodon oyakawai (Santos & Castro, 2014) Fr native   6.43 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin (Ref. 96884). 
Characidae Deuterodon parahybae Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native   3.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Itapemirim River basin (Ref. 48602). 
Characidae Deuterodon pelecus (Bertaco & Lucena, 2006) Fr native   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Bahia, Cândido Sales, rio Pardo on road BR116, MCP 37570 (holotype of Astyanax pelecus, 5.64 cm SL). Found in the upper rio Pardo drainage, at Cândido Sales, a coastal drainage in the state of Bahia, eastern Brazil (Ref. 57404). 
Characidae Deuterodon ribeirae (Eigenmann, 1911) Fr native   8.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Deuterodon rosae (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  11.66 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Sta. Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul. 
Characidae Deuterodon sazimai (Santos & Castro, 2014) Fr native   5.67 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Itapemirim basin in Espírito Santo and rio Doce basin in Minas Gerais (Ref. 96884). 
Characidae Deuterodon singularis Lucena & Lucena, 1992 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  8.81 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Sanga de Areia, Gravatal, Santa Catarina, MZUSP 43766 (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Deuterodon stigmaturus (Gomes, 1947) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  10.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Maquiné, Três Forquilhas and Mampituba Rivers basins in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Deuterodon supparis Lucena & Lucena, 1992 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  10.24 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: tributary to Rio Itajaí-Açu, near Ibirama, Santa Catarina, MZUSP 43767 (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Deuterodon taeniatus (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Piaba-branca (Portuguese)   9.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Macaé, São João, and Paraíba do Sul river basins in Rio de Janeiro State, and Benevente river basin in Espírito Santo State (Ref. 119398). Also Ref. 598. 
Callichthyidae Dianema longibarbis Cope, 1872 Fr native    8.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). 
Callichthyidae Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912) Fr, Or native  Dianema (Portuguese), Rondon (Portuguese)   8.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37395). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Characidae Diapoma alburnum (Hensel, 1870) Fr native    7.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality of Diapoma alburnus Rio Cadea, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 26282). Recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359); Porto Alegre, Praia das Pombas (Ref. 119400). 
Characidae Diapoma alegretense (Malabarba & Weitzman, 2003) Fr native   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Creek on road Santana do Livramento-Alegrete, Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 50838). 
Characidae Diapoma dicropotamicus (Malabarba & Weitzman, 2003) Fr native   4.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Cyanocharax dicropotamicus Rio Forqueta, Marquês de Souza, Lageado, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 50838). Known from rio Jacui drainage (Ref. 55830). Also Ref. 119400. 
Characidae Diapoma itaimbe (Malabarba & Weitzman, 2003) Fr native   4.46 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Arroio Facão at Mãe dos Homens, trib. of Rio Canoas-rio Mampituba, Praia Grande, Santa Catarina (Ref. 50838). 
Characidae Diapoma lepiclastum (Malabarba, Weitzman & Casciotta, 2003) Fr native   4.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Frio Dourados, Linha Várzea, on road between Severiano de Almeida and Aratiba, Severiano de Almeida, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 50838). 
Characidae Diapoma pyrrhopteryx Menezes & Weitzman, 2011 Fr native   5.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Canoas basin or tributaries flowing into this basin that belongs to the rio Uruguay basin in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 86734). 
Characidae Diapoma speculiferum Cope, 1894 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  4.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 598). Also Ref. 119400. 
Characidae Diapoma terofali (Géry, 1964) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  4.83 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Diapoma thauma Menezes & Weitzman, 2011 Fr native   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the rio Jacuí basin, northwest of Porto Alegre in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 86734). 
Characidae Diapoma tipiaia (Malabarba & Weitzman, 2003) Fr native   3.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Diapoma tipiaia, Arroio Tipiáia, ca. 13 km north of Júlio de Castilhos, on road to Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 50838). Known from rio Jacui drainage (Ref. 55830). 
Characidae Diapoma uruguayense (Messner, 1962) Fr native    5.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Arroio Pai-Passo, on road Santana do Livramento-Alegrete (RS 183), Quaraí, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 50838). 
Cichlidae Dicrossus filamentosus (Ladiges, 1958) Fr, Or native  Patakera (Portuguese)  3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in northwest Brazil (Rio Negro basin). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Cichlidae Dicrossus foirni Römer, Hahn & Vergara, 2010 Fr native   7.09 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm SL female  Known from the northern Rio drainage (Ref. 85095). 
Cichlidae Dicrossus maculatus Steindachner, 1875 Fr endemic  Xadrez (Portuguese)   5.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.00 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Tapajós River drainage, Maués River, and near Parintins (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Amazon R. drainage at Lake Maximo, Lake Jose Assu, Rio Tonantins, R. Hyavary, R. Tajapuru, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Dicrossus warzeli Römer, Hahn & Vergara, 2010 Fr native   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.50 cm SL female  Known only from Tapajos River, Amazon River system. Seems to be endemic to the middle to upper Rio Tapajos system (Ref. 85095). 
Sternopygidae Distocyclus conirostris (Eigenmann & Allen, 1942) Fr native    50.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 39524). 
Doradidae Doras carinatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Fr native  Botinho (Portuguese), Cuyú cuyú (Portuguese), Mandi-serra (Portuguese)  30.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 35381. 
Doradidae Doras higuchii Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli, 2008 Fr native   32.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Curuám (Iriri-Xingu Drainage), near town of Castelo dos Sonhos, 8°19'07"S, 55°05'23"W, Altamira Municipality, Pará, Brazil. 
Doradidae Doras phlyzakion Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli, 2008 Fr native     Type locality, Rio Tefé (Amazonas Drainage), beach, Vista Escura, 3°38'S, 64°59'W, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 81932). 
Doradidae Doras zuanoni Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli, 2008 Fr native    Known from the rio Araguaia (Tocantins drainage). 
Eleotridae Dormitator maculatus (Bloch, 1792) Fr, Br native  Barrigudo (Portuguese), Cundundé (Portuguese), Dorminhoco (Portuguese)   70.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 26340. 
Pimelodidae Duopalatinus emarginatus (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr, Thr endemic  Mandi urutu (Portuguese), Mandi-açu (Portuguese), Mandiaçu (Portuguese), Urutu (Portuguese)   14.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36506). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Type locality: Rio San Francisco (Ref. 6868, 26282). 
Pimelodidae Duopalatinus peruanus Eigenmann & Allen, 1942 Fr native    15.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia antonioi Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr endemic    20.46 cm TL male/unsexed  Currently known only from Rio Anapu at Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, a tributary of the lower portion of Rio Amazonas, state of Pará, Brazil (Ref. 115689). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia besouro Peixoto & Wosiacki, 2016 Fr native   14.76 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in the tributaries of the left margin of rio São Francisco in Bahia, northeastern Brazil (Ref. 115976). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia desantanai Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr endemic    18.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Currently only known from Rio Cuiabá, Rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso (Ref. 115689). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia guairaca Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr endemic    17.28 cm TL male/unsexed  Currently only known from Riacho Água do Ó, a tributary of the Rio Paranapanema, upper Rio Paraná basin, Paraná, Brazil (Ref. 115689). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia humboldtii (Steindachner, 1878) Fr native    48.60 cm SL male/unsexed    
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia limbata (Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro, 1903) Fr native    48.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 39524). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia macrops (Boulenger, 1897) Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)   25.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 39524). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia matintapereira Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr native   21.98 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Rio Uneiuxi and Rio Urubaxi, tributaries of the Rio Negro in Amazonas (Ref. 115689). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia microstomus (Reinhardt, 1852) Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)  18.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the upper São Francisco River basin (Ref. 39524). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia muirapinima Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr native   14.26 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Igarapé Santo Antônio and Lago Jará, both tributaries of Rio Amazonas, Rio Amazonas basin in Pará (Ref. 115689). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia nigra Mago-Leccia, 1994 Fr native   47.60 cm TL male/unsexed   
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia pavulagem Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr native   26.33 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in small tributaries of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin in north-eastern Pará (Ref. 115689). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia trilineata López & Castello, 1966 Fr native  Tuvira (Portuguese)   25.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia vicentespelaea Triques, 1996 Fr native  Ituí (Portuguese)   20.79 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in caves in the São Vicente River, Tocantins River basin (Ref. 39524). 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia virescens (Valenciennes, 1836) Fr native  Tuvira (Portuguese), Peixe-espada (Portuguese), Pestana (Portuguese), Sarapó (Portuguese), Sarapó-barrigudinho (Portuguese), Tuvira amarela (Portuguese)   44.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Amazon River basin, Pardo River in Paraná River basin (Ref. 27745) Uruguay River (Ref. 79585) and Acre River (Ref. 97592). Found in Córrego Barreiro (Ref. 53011). Also Ref. 39524. 
Sternopygidae Eigenmannia waiwai Peixoto, Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015 Fr native   22.41 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Rio Mapuera, a tributary of the Rio Trombetas basin, Pará (Ref. 115689). 
Crenuchidae Elachocharax geryi Weitzman & Kanazawa, 1978 Fr native   1.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 37059). Museum: Lago Paricatuba, Rio Negro drainage, Estado do Amazonas, MZUSP 13249 (holotype, 1.9 cm SL) (Ref. 13683). Also Ref. 27925. 
Crenuchidae Elachocharax junki (Géry, 1971) Fr native    2.31 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Amazon, Cuieiras, Novo and Madeira rivers. Museum : Rio Novo, 8°46'S, 63°30'W, No. 0624 J. Gèry's personal collection (holotype, 2.24 cm SL) (Ref. 13683). Also Ref. 598, 37059. 
Crenuchidae Elachocharax mitopterus Weitzman, 1986 Fr native   1.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 37059). Museum: Igarapé Tarumazinho, Amazon, MZUSP 29871 (Ref. 27925). 
Crenuchidae Elachocharax pulcher Myers, 1927 Fr native    2.21 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Ref. 37059) and Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). Recorded from Igarapé Açu at Aveiro, Estado do Para (Ref. 13683). 
Gymnotidae Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766) Fr questionable  Poraquê (Portuguese), Enguia elétrica (Portuguese), Peixe elétrico (Portuguese), Pixundé (Portuguese), Poraquê de fogo (Portuguese), Puraquê (Portuguese), Puxundu (Portuguese), Treme treme (Portuguese)   250 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from the Amazon River (Ref. 36692). Part of the Guiana Shield; but needs further confirmation. 
Gymnotidae Electrophorus varii de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Mendes-Júnior & Castro e Castro, 2019 Fr native   149 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality of Electrophorus varii,Pará, Marajó I., Goiapi River. Collected from Acapu, Caripetuba, Curiaú, Curuá, Goiapi (tributary of rio Arari), Irituia, Maicuru rivers (Pará State); Matupiri, Solimões, Rio Negro/Solimoes rivers (Amazon State); Rio Tapajós (Mato Grosso State); Itapecuru and Marmorana (Maranhão State); the Purus River a tributary of the Amazon River (Ref. 120918). 
Gymnotidae Electrophorus voltai de Santana, Wosiacki, Crampton, Sabaj, Dillman, Castro e Castro Bastos & Vari, 2019 Fr native   171 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality of Electrophorus voltai, Pará, Almerim, Ipitinga River. Collected from Cupari, Curiaú, Maicuru, São Benedito rivers (Pará State); Teles Pires and Xingu rivers (includes Iriri River) in Mato Grosso and Pará states; Tapajós river (Mato Grosso); Santa Rosa (Rio Grande do Sul State); Rossevelt River (Rondônia State) (Ref. 120918). 
Eleotridae Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin, 1789) Fr, Br, M native  Peixe-macaco (Portuguese), Amoré-pixuna (Portuguese), Amoré-preto (Portuguese), Amorepixuna (Portuguese), Moré-preto (Portuguese)   25.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 26938. 
Triportheidae Engraulisoma taeniatum Castro, 1981 Fr native    4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 14704 (holotype of E. taeniatum, 4.1 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 38376. 
Auchenipteridae Entomocorus benjamini Eigenmann, 1917 Fr native    7.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Auchenipteridae Entomocorus melaphareus Akama & Ferraris, 2003 Fr native   5.86 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from two localities on the left bank of the Amazon River below Manaus (Ref. 54767). 
Auchenipteridae Entomocorus radiosus Reis & Borges, 2006 Fr native   5.29 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Paraguay River. Found in Pantanal (Ref. 57707). 
Loricariidae Epactionotus bilineatus Reis & Schaefer, 1998 Fr native    4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Grande do Sul State: Rios Maquiné and Três Forquilhas. 
Loricariidae Epactionotus gracilis Reis & Schaefer, 1998 Fr native   3.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Santa Catarina State: Rio Araranguá. 
Loricariidae Epactionotus itaimbezinho Reis & Schaefer, 1998 Fr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Mampituba. 
Loricariidae Epactionotus yasi Almirón, Azpelicueta & Casciotta, 2004 Fr native       
Auchenipteridae Epapterus dispilurus Cope, 1878 Fr native    15.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 37098). 
Erythrinidae Erythrinus erythrinus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Fr native  Iú (Portuguese), Jeju (Portuguese), Jejú (Portuguese), Mariana (Portuguese), Moroba (Portuguese), Morobá (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Museum: near Pará, USNM 163759. Upper Rio Juruena, Mato Grosso, USNM 199203. 
Erythrinidae Erythrinus kessleri Steindachner, 1877 Fr native   19.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Erythrocharax altipinnis Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli, de Sousa, Mariguela & Oliveira, 2013 Fr native   2.62 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Curuá at Serra do Cachimbo, Pará (Ref. 93035) 
Gerreidae Eucinostomus argenteus Baird & Girard, 1855 Fr, Br, M native  Carapicu-pena (Portuguese), Acarapicu (Portuguese), Carapeba (Portuguese), Carapicu (Portuguese), Carapipiacuaçu (Portuguese), Escrivão (Portuguese)  21.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Ranges from Paraíba south to Santa Catarina (Ref. 57756). Also Ref. 7251, 13442, 26938, 55758. Caught by shrimp trawl in Pirambu, Sergipe (Ref. 118626). 
Gerreidae Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier, 1830) Fr, Br, M native  Carapeba-listrada (Portuguese), Carapeba-rajada (Portuguese), Caratinga (Portuguese)  40.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 26340. 
Loricariidae Eurycheilichthys limulus Reis & Schaefer, 1998 Fr native   4.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Grande do Sul State: Rio Jacuí. 
Loricariidae Eurycheilichthys pantherinus (Reis & Schaefer, 1992) Fr native   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper and middle Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36885). Museum: creek tributary of Rio Dos Touros, Rio Grande do Sul, 250 to 500 m elevation, MCP 13077 (holotype, 3.79 cm SL) (Ref. 26607). 
Loricariidae Euryochus thysanos Pereira & Reis, 2017 Fr native   11.97 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the coastal rivers of eastern Brazil from Itapemirim River in the south, and including the larger basins of the Doce and Mucuri rivers in Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais states, to the Frades River in the north, in Bahia State (Ref. 116743). 
Gobiidae Evorthodus lyricus (Girard, 1858) Fr, Br, M native  Amoré (Portuguese), Maria-da-toca (Portuguese)   15.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Pimelodidae Exallodontus aguanai Lundberg, Mago-Leccia & Nass, 1991 Fr native    20.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Loricariidae Exastilithoxus hoedemani Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1985 Fr native   5.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Maurauiá River in the upper Negro River drainage (Ref. 36713). 
Characidae Exodon paradoxus Müller & Troschel, 1844 Fr native  Miguelinho (Portuguese)   7.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 4537. 
Loricariidae Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Acarí espada (Portuguese), Cascudo espada (Portuguese)   22.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 36389). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Farlowella hahni Meinken, 1937 Fr native    20.10 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Farlowella hasemani Eigenmann & Vance, 1917 Fr native    17.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pará State (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella henriquei Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 Fr native   16.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Araguaia River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella isbruckeri Retzer & Page, 1997 Fr native   13.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from tne Paraguay River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella jauruensis Eigenmann & Vance, 1917 Fr native   13.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella nattereri Steindachner, 1910 Fr native    26.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella oxyrryncha (Kner, 1853) Fr native    23.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River and coastal rivers of northeastern Brazil (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella paraguayensis Retzer & Page, 1997 Fr native    17.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Paraguay River (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella platorynchus Retzer & Page, 1997 Fr native   19.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella schreitmuelleri Ahl, 1937 Fr native   18.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella smithi Fowler, 1913 Fr native    10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Madeira River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Farlowella vittata Myers, 1942 Fr native    22.50 cm SL male/unsexed    
Fluviphylacidae Fluviphylax gouldingi Bragança, 2018 Fr native   1.43 cm SL male/unsexed ;1.39 cm SL female  Type locality of Fluviphylax gouldingi, Estado do Amazonas: Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira: igarapé near Monte Cristo community, a tributary of Rio Vaupés drainage, upper Rio Negro drainage, Rio Amazonas, basin. Known from four main river drainages of the upper and middle Rio Negro drainage: Vaupés, Urubaxi, Neuixi and Aiuanã (Ref. 123788), 
Fluviphylacidae Fluviphylax obscurus Costa, 1996 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  1.73 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Negro. 
Fluviphylacidae Fluviphylax palikur Costa & Le Bail, 1999 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  2.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Museum: Estado do Amapá, Rio Taparabu, right tributary of rio Oiapoque, Juminán, MZUSP 52941 (holotype of F. palikur, 1.2 cm SL, male) (Ref. 33375). 
Fluviphylacidae Fluviphylax pygmaeus (Myers & Carvalho, 1955) Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)   2.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 50894). Found in Rio Madeira basin, between Borba, Estado do Amazonas, and mouth of Rio Machado, Estado de Rondônia (Ref. 26652). 
Fluviphylacidae Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  1.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Solimoes-Amazonas, between lago Miuá (Codajás) and mouth of Rio Tapajós, and lower rios Trobetas and Tapajós. 
Fluviphylacidae Fluviphylax wallacei Bragança, 2018 Fr native   1.48 cm SL male/unsexed ;1.26 cm SL female  Type locality of Fluviphylax wallacei, Estado do Amazonas: Município de Barcelos: Igarapé Mauaú near Romão community, Rio Aracá drainage, middle Rio Negro drainage. Known from two localities in the middle Rio Negro drainage, the Igarapé Mauaú in the Rio Aracá subdrainage and the Igarapé do Campo in the Rio Jufari subdrainage (Ref. 123788). 
Fluviphylacidae Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese), Guaru (Portuguese)  1.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the lower Rio Negro, between Anavilhanas and Manaus. 
Doradidae Franciscodoras marmoratus (Lütken, 1874) Fr native  Caborje (Portuguese), Bacu pedra (Portuguese), Bozó (Portuguese), Caboge (Portuguese), Caboje (Portuguese), Caborge (Portuguese), Combó (Portuguese), Mandim armado (Portuguese), Serrudo (Portuguese), Vasconcellos (Portuguese), Vasconcelos (Portuguese)  36.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio das Velhas (Ref. 6868). Known from São Francisco River basin (Ref. 37054). 
Loricariidae Furcodontichthys novaesi Rapp Py-Daniel, 1981 Fr native    10.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Solimões River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Characidae Galeocharax gulo (Cope, 1870) Fr native  Cacunda (Portuguese), Dentusca (Portuguese), Peixe-cachorro (Portuguese)   22.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio São Francisco and Amazon River basins (Ref. 36811). 
Characidae Galeocharax humeralis (Valenciennes, 1834) Fr native  Saicanga (Portuguese), Peixe-cachorro (Portuguese)   30.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Reported from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Characidae Galeocharax knerii (Steindachner, 1879) Fr, Fi native  Peixe cadela (Portuguese), Peixe-cadela (Portuguese), Peixe-cigarra (Portuguese), Saicanga (Portuguese)   33.10 cm SL male/unsexed 16 TL Known from the upper Paraná (Ref. 36811) and Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). Also Ref. 31923. 
Gasteropelecidae Gasteropelecus levis (Eigenmann, 1909) Fr native  Borboleta branca (Portuguese), Peixe borboleta (Portuguese)  3.53 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Amazon River basin (Ref. 39056). Also Ref. 7020. 
Gasteropelecidae Gasteropelecus sternicla (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr native  Borboleta (Portuguese), Sapopema (Portuguese), Voador (Portuguese)   3.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Fantanal, Paraguay (Ref. 81048) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Auchenipteridae Gelanoglanis nanonocticolus Soares-Porto, Walsh, Nico & Netto, 1999 Fr native   2.22 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle rio Negro, Amazon River basin at Paraná do Jacaré (Ref. 32901). 
Auchenipteridae Gelanoglanis pan Calegari, Reis & Vari, 2014 Fr native   2.47 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Teles Pires, a tributary to the upper rio Tapajós basin (Ref. 97849). 
Ariidae Genidens planifrons (Higuchi, Reis & Araújo, 1982) Fr, Br, M native  Bagre (Portuguese), Bagre-boca-larga (Portuguese)  57.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Geophagus altifrons Heckel, 1840 Fr native    26.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Present in the Rio Tapajos (Ref. 52307). 
Cichlidae Geophagus argyrostictus Kullander, 1991 Fr endemic    24.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Xingu River from Cachoeira von Martius to Belo Monte, and in the Curuá River (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Fr native  Acará-topete (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Acará diadema (Portuguese), Acará ferreira (Portuguese), Acará-roque (Portuguese), Acará-topête (Portuguese), Acaraí (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese), Caratinga (Portuguese), Papa-terra (Portuguese)   28.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). Found in the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Cichlidae Geophagus camopiensis Pellegrin, 1903 Fr native  Acara tinga (Portuguese), Carà (Portuguese)   17.50 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Geophagus diamantinensis Mattos, Costa & Santos, 2015 Fr endemic   7.41 cm SL male/unsexed  Currently known only from the upper section of the Paraguaçu river basin, Chapada Diamantina, north-eastern Brazil (Ref. 118113). 
Cichlidae Geophagus iporangensis Haseman, 1911 Fr endemic    10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Ribeira de Iguape River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Geophagus itapicuruensis Haseman, 1911 Fr endemic     Known from the Itapicuru River, on the coast of Bahia (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Geophagus megasema Heckel, 1840 Fr native    18.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Guaporé River basin (Ref. 36377). Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Cichlidae Geophagus mirabilis Deprá, Kullander, Pavanelli & Graça, 2014 Fr native   16.21 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Aripuanã drainage, upstream from Dardanelos/Andorinhas falls (Ref. 102658). 
Cichlidae Geophagus multiocellus Mattos & Costa, 2018 Fr native   10.29 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Geophagus multiocellus, Bahia state: Iguaí municipality: Guaíra balneary, Rio Cambiriba, Rio Gongogi drainage, Rio de Contas Basin. Known only from the middle section of the Rio de Contas Basin, about 270 to 545 m above sea level, Bahia state, northeast Brazil (Ref. 119412). 
Cichlidae Geophagus neambi Lucinda, Lucena & Assis, 2010 Fr native   15.70 cm TL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Geophagus obscurus (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native    10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paraguaçu River in the coast of Bahia (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Geophagus parnaibae Staeck & Schindler, 2006 Fr native   7.59 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Parnaíba drainage in Piauí and Maranhão, northeastern Brazil (Ref. 57445). 
Cichlidae Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855) Fr, Fi native  Acará roi roi (Portuguese), Acará tinga (Portuguese), Acará-papa-terra (Portuguese), Acaratinga (Portuguese)   34.80 cm TL male/unsexed ;26.60 cm female  Found along the Solimoes-Amazon River to the Trombetas River (Ref. 36377). Widespread in Brazilian waters, including the rivers Tefe and Trombetas (Ref. 12251). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Cichlidae Geophagus rufomarginatus Mattos & Costa, 2018 Fr native   10.41 cm male/unsexed  Type locality of Geophagus rufomarginatus, NE Brazil, Bahia State: Porto Seguro municipality: small stream crossing the road BA-001, Rio Buranhém Basin. Known only from Known only from the middle and lower sections of the Rio Buranhém Basin, at altitudes of about 65 m above sea level or less (Ref. 119412). 
Cichlidae Geophagus santosi Mattos & Costa, 2018 Fr native   15.34 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Geophagus santosi, Bahia state: Ituberá municipality: Rio Mariana upstream of Cachoeira da Pancada, Área de Proteção Ambiental Michelin. Known only from the Rio Mariana, an isolated small coastal river of Bahia state, northeast Brazil (Ref. 119412). 
Cichlidae Geophagus surinamensis (Bloch, 1791) Fr misidentification  Acará tinga (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Acará-bicudo (Portuguese), Acará-pitanga (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese), Cará de praia (Portuguese), Cará roe roe (Portuguese), Cará tabaco doido (Portuguese), Juquiá (Portuguese)   14.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the country (Ref. 6029). Occurrence in the country is not confirmed (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Geophagus sveni Lucinda, Lucena & Assis, 2010 Fr native   16.70 cm SL male/unsexed   
Gerreidae Gerres cinereus (Walbaum, 1792) Fr, Br, M native  Carapicu-açú (Portuguese), Carapeba (Portuguese)  41.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 26340. 
Heptapteridae Gladioglanis anacanthus Rocha, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel, 2008 Fr native   2.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from its type locality, Lago do Mamão, rio Aripuanã basin in Amazonas state (Ref. 79081). 
Heptapteridae Gladioglanis conquistador Lundberg, Bornbusch & Mago-Leccia, 1991 Fr native    3.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Solimões, Purus, and Capim River basins (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Gladioglanis machadoi Ferraris & Mago-Leccia, 1989 Fr native   3.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Negro River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Trichomycteridae Glanapteryx anguilla Myers, 1927 Fr native   6.14 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 39970). Type locality: Rapids of Sao Gabriel, Rio Negro system, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Glanapteryx niobium de Pinna, 1998 Fr native   5.53 cm male/unsexed  Known from Morro dos Seis Lagos, Negro River basin (Ref. 39970). 
Characidae Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman, 2009 Fr native    4.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Iguaçu River basin (Ref. 38597). Type locality, Rio Iguaçu at Serrinha Paraná, (Ref. 30296). 
Characidae Glandulocauda melanopleura (Ellis, 1911) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   5.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Tietê River of the upper Paraná basin and adjoining upper portions of the coastal rivers Guaratuba, Itatinga and Ribeira de Iguape flowing into the Atlantic Ocean in the State of São Paulo. Also Ref. 38376. 
Auchenipteridae Glanidium albescens Lütken, 1874 Fr native  Anduiá (Portuguese), Bagre branco (Portuguese), Bagrinho de água doce (Portuguese), Bocudo (Portuguese), Buneva (Portuguese), Bureva (Portuguese), Enduiá (Portuguese), Jundiá (Portuguese), Pacamão branco (Portuguese), Pacu branco (Portuguese), Peixe-dourado (Portuguese)  12.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio das Velhas (Ref. 6868). 
Auchenipteridae Glanidium botocudo Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro, 2013 Fr native    9.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in large coastal river systems such as Rio Doce and Rio Mucuri in Minas Gerais (Ref. 93811). 
Auchenipteridae Glanidium catharinensis Miranda Ribeiro, 1962 Fr native   15.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tubarão River basin in Santa Catarina (Ref. 37098). Found in the Rio do Braco do Norte, São Ludgero in Sta. Catarina (Ref. 6868). 
Auchenipteridae Glanidium cesarpintoi Ihering, 1928 Fr native   9.57 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Mogi-guassú River basin, São Paulo (Ref. 37098). 
Auchenipteridae Glanidium melanopterum Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 Fr native    19.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Piquete, São Paulo (Ref. 6868). 
Auchenipteridae Glanidium ribeiroi Haseman, 1911 Fr native  Jundiá miúdo (Portuguese)   22.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Iguassu, Porto União da Vitoria, Paraná (Ref. 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Glaphyropoma rodriguesi de Pinna, 1992 Fr native   5.07 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Mucujê River, tributary of Paraguaçu River (Ref. 37790). 
Trichomycteridae Glaphyropoma spinosum Bichuette, de Pinna & Trajano, 2008 Fr native   5.82 cm SL male/unsexed   
Acestrorhynchidae Gnathocharax steindachneri Fowler, 1913 Fr native    5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36811). Also Ref. 598. 
Gobiidae Gobioides grahamae Palmer & Wheeler, 1955 Fr, Br, M native   17.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Marajo I., BMNH 1925.10.28.464 (holotype of G. unicolor and G. grahamae); BMNH 1925.10.28.465 (paratype) (Ref. 27974). Also Ref. 50190. 
Gobiidae Gobionellus oceanicus (Pallas, 1770) Fr, Br native  Amborê (Portuguese), Amoré (Portuguese), Boca-de-fogo (Portuguese), Boca-de-ouro (Portuguese), Corongo (Portuguese), Maria-da-toca (Portuguese), Milonga (Portuguese), Milongo (Portuguese), Mingula (Portuguese), Miroró (Portuguese), Miroró mirim (Portuguese), Moré (Portuguese), Moré-boca-de-ouro (Portuguese), Moré-de-areia (Portuguese), Mororó (Portuguese), Muré (Portuguese), Taissica (Portuguese)  27.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Heptapteridae Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel, 1849) Fr native  Caiauaná (Portuguese)  28.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Cichlidae Guianacara geayi (Pellegrin, 1902) Fr native  Carà (Portuguese)  12.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Oyapock River drainage (Ref. 36377). 
Loricariidae Guyanancistrus teretirostris Fisch-Muller, Mol & Covain, 2018 Fr native   9.76 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the upper Kumbu Creek in the Brownsberg Nature Park, Brownsberg Mountains, at altitude 200±430 m above mean sea level (Ref. 116863). 
Characidae Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai Benine, Melo, Castro & Oliveira, 2015 Fr native   5.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Madeira of the Amazon basin (Ref. 101636). 
Characidae Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895) Fr native  Tetra preto (Portuguese), Tetra-negro (Portuguese), Tetra-preto (Portuguese)   7.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in southern Brazil (Ref. 38376); recorded from rio Paraguai basin, Santo Antônio do Leverger, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 18720 (Ref. 46237) 
Characidae Gymnocorymbus thayeri Eigenmann, 1908 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   7.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from igarapé Caxipacoré, rio Trombetas, Pará, INPA 12231 (Ref. 46237). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia, 1891) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese)   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay drainage of the Paraná River basin and the lower Uruguay drainage (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus constellatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis, 2015 Fr native   13.68 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Gymnogeophagus constellatus Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, rio Conceição (Ref. 118066). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese)   15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Restricted to the laguna dos Patos and rio Tramandaí drainages in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 118066). Questionable occurrence in Lagoa Mirim drainages (Ref. 36377) and Uruguay River (Ref. 79585), probably misidentification (see Ref. 118066). Also Ref. 36377. 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel, 1870) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese)   15.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Laguna dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim drainages (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus lacustris Reis & Malabarba, 1988 Fr endemic    14.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal drainages in northern Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 36377). Type locality: canal between Lagoa da Cerquinha and Lagoa da Rondinha, Pinhal, Tramandai, RS (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus lipokarenos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis, 2015 Fr native   12.34 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Gymnogeophagus lipokarenos, rio Dourados at Linha Várzea, on road from Severiano de Almeida to Aratiba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 118066). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus mekinos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis, 2015 Fr native   10.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Gymnogeophagus mekinos, Rio Grande do Sul, rio Piraizinho, on road from Bagé to Dom Pedrito, tributary of rio Negro. It inhabits the río Negro, connected to the lower río Uruguay. Report of its presence in the río Tacuarí / lagoa Mirim drainage is probably based on a study using DNA analysis (Ref. 118066). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus meridionalis Reis & Malabarba, 1988 Fr native    9.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River drainage (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus missioneiro Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis, 2015 Fr native   10.93 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Gymnogeophagus missioneiro, Rio Grande do Sul, 4 km from São Luiz Gonzaga, arroio Ximbocuzinho, on road from São Luiz Gonzaga to Bossoroca. It is known from the rio Piratini and its tributaries, middle rio Uruguay basin, in the western portion of Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 118066). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus pseudolabiatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis, 2015 Fr native  abundant (always seen in some numbers) 9.59 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Gymnogeophagus pseudolabiatus<>, Rio Grande do Sul, Santana do Livramento, rio Sarandi III, tributary of rio Quaraí, a tributary of rio Uruguay on road from Santana do Livramento to Quaraí. Known from the rio Quaraí and its tributaries, along the border of Brazil. This species is relatively frequent and abundant in the rio Quaraí basin (Ref. 118066). Status of threat: Least Concern: Extent of Occurrence (EOO) is approximately 4,500 square kilometers and no specific threats were detected (Ref. 118066). 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus rhabdotus (Hensel, 1870) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese)   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Laguna dos Patos basin (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 4537. 
Cichlidae Gymnogeophagus setequedas Reis, Malabarba & Pavanelli, 1992 Fr native  Acará (Portuguese)   9.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Paraná River basin (Ref. 36377). Known from the Pantanal of Brazil coming in with the floodwaters of the Rio Paraguay (Ref. 12251). 
Rhamphichthyidae Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus Ellis, 1912 Fr native    21.50 cm TL male/unsexed    
Rhamphichthyidae Gymnorhamphichthys petiti Géry & Vu, 1964 Fr native     Known from the Upper Araguaia River (Ref. 36685), Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Rhamphichthyidae Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni (Miranda Ribeiro, 1920) Fr native    15.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Rhamphichthyidae Gymnorhamphichthys rosamariae Schwassmann, 1989 Fr native    Known from Negro River basin (Ref. 36685). 
Loricariidae Gymnotocinclus anosteos Carvalho, Lehmann A. & Reis, 2008 Fr native   4.43 cm SL male/unsexed   
Gymnotidae Gymnotus anguillaris Hoedeman, 1962 Fr native  Ituï (Portuguese), Carapo (Portuguese), Sarapo (Portuguese), Tuvira (Portuguese)   30.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Gymnotidae Gymnotus arapaima Albert & Crampton, 2001 Fr native   55.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Amazonas: Paraná Apara, 10 km NW confluence Juruá and Solimões rivers, Mamirauá Reserve (Ref. 41292). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus bahianus Campos-da-Paz & Costa, 1996 Fr native    27.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Known only from its type locality and surrounding areas, all near Ilhéus, Bahia State. 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus capanema Milhomem, Crampton, Pierczeka, Shetka, Silva & Nagamachi, 2012 Fr native   17.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Pará State, municipality of Capanema, Açaiteuazinho River, (tributary of Amazon Estuary), MPEG 15170 (holotype og Gymnotus capanema, 17.9 cm TL, male). Found in drainages of the Amazon Estuary in the state of Pará, Brazil (Rio Açaiteuazinho drainage near the town of Capanema and in the Rio Caeté near the town of Bragança). A single lot found from an unlisted drainage in the municipality of Santa Isabel do Pará indicates that this species is also found some 100 km east of the type locality near Capanema (Ref. 89487). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus capitimaculatus Rangel-Pereira, 2014 Fr native  scarce (very unlikely) 15.84 cm TL male/unsexed  Known only from the rio do Ouro, a tributary of the rio Jucuruçu, Itamaraju municipality in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil. This is the only population belonging to the Gymnotus pantherinus species group found in this basin or in its neighboring, indicating that this is a very rare and endangered species (Ref. 96661). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 Fr, Fi native  Tuvira (Portuguese), Carapo (Portuguese), Carapó (Portuguese), Ituí (Portuguese), Ituï (Portuguese), Morenita (Portuguese), Peixe espada do rio (Portuguese), Pirá mboi (Portuguese), Sabão (Portuguese), Sarapo (Portuguese), Sarapó (Portuguese), Tira faca (Portuguese), Tuí (Portuguese), Varapó (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 76.00 cm TL male/unsexed 14.6 TL Recorded from the Pardo River (Ref. 27745), Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, tributaries of the Paraná River (Ref. 26076), Pircacicaba (Ref. 50076), Machado (Ref. 97589) and Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 36692. 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus cataniapo Mago-Leccia, 1994 Fr native   31.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36692). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus chimarrao Cognato, Richer-de-Forges, Albert & Crampton, 2008 Fr native   24.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Arroio Grande in the Rio Taquari drainage, Arroio do Meio, Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS 6774 (holotype of Gymnotus chimarrao, 11.84 cm SL, immature male) (Ref. 75065). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus coatesi La Monte, 1935 Fr native    30.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36692). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus coropinae Hoedeman, 1962 Fr native    34.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basin (Ref. 97592). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus cuia Craig, Malabarba, Crampton & Albert, 2018 Fr native   30.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Gymnotidae Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen & Albert, 2005 Fr native    23.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from terra firme forest swamps and stream pools of the Rio Tefé drainage near the town of Tefé, Amazonas (Ref. 55508). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus diamantinensis Campos-da-Paz, 2002 Fr native   12.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known only from its type locality, a creek tributary of the rio Preto at the upper portion of the rio Arinos system (Tapajós river basin, Mato Grosso State) (Ref. 42925). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Valenciennes, 1839) Fr native    99.80 cm TL male/unsexed 19.3 TL Not in Ref. 36692. 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus interruptus Rangel-Pereira, 2012 Fr native   12.11 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Riacho Cambiriba, an affluent of the rio Gongogi, Guaíra Balneary, Iguaí in Bahia (Ref. 93136) 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus javari Albert, Crampton & Hagedorn, 2003 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)   20.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus jonasi Albert & Crampton, 2001 Fr native   13.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36692). Type locality: Amazonas: Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve. 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus mamiraua Albert & Crampton, 2001 Fr native   24.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from two whitewater lake systems on the Rio Solimões floodplain of central Amazonia (the Mamirauá lake system near Tefé, and Lago Janauacá near Manaus), Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 41292). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus melanopleura Albert & Crampton, 2001 Fr native   10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Amazon River basin (Ref. 36692). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus obscurus Crampton, Thorsen & Albert, 2005 Fr native   21.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known only from the varzea floodplain at the conflluence of the Rio Solimoes (Amazon) and the Rio Japura in Mamiraua Reserve near the Tefé, Amazonas (Ref. 55508). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus onca Albert & Crampton, 2001 Fr native   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Amazon River basin (Ref. 36692). Type locality: Cano do Lago Rato, Mamirauá Reserve, 3°02'36"S, 64°51'02"W, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 41292). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus pantanal Fernandes, Albert, Daniel-Silva, Lopes, Crampton & Almeida-Toledo, 2005 Fr native    26.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Pantanal Matogrossense (Ref. 54472). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus pantherinus (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native    23.58 cm TL male/unsexed    
Gymnotidae Gymnotus paraguensis Albert & Crampton, 2003 Fr native  Tuvira (Portuguese)   24.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Nueva, Mato Grosso do Sul (Ref. 49716). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus pedanopterus Mago-Leccia, 1994 Fr native  Sarrapu (Portuguese)   28.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in tributaries of the Rio Negro (Ref. 36692). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus sylvius Albert & Fernandes-Matioli, 1999 Fr native    42.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Ribeira de Iguape, Paraíba do Sul, and Pardo River basins (Ref. 36692). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus tigre Albert & Crampton, 2003 Fr native   41.10 cm TL male/unsexed   
Gymnotidae Gymnotus tiquie Maxime, Lima & Albert, 2011 Fr native  Wapu-dike (Tucano)  24.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Amazonas, Rio Tiquié, a tributary of the Uaupés (Vaupés) in the upper Negro basin (Ref. 83328). 
Gymnotidae Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen & Albert, 2005 Fr native   28.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from varzea floodplains at the confluence of the Rio Solimoes (Amazon) and Rio Japura in the Miraua Reserve near Tefe, Amazonas (Ref. 55508). 
Trichomycteridae Haemomaster venezuelae Myers, 1927 Fr native   6.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 39970). 
Loricariidae Harttia absaberi Oyakawa, Fichberg & Langeani, 2013 Fr native   7.41 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the three localities in the upper rio Paraná drainage: rio Passa Cinco, a tributary of the rio Piracicaba, rio Tietê drainage, São Paulo State, and two small creeks tributaries of the rio Sucuriú, at Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul State (Ref. 94714). 
Loricariidae Harttia carvalhoi Miranda Ribeiro, 1939 Fr native    7.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paquequer River basin in Paraíba do Sul River drainage (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia depressa Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira, 2001 Fr endemic   12.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uatumã River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia dissidens Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira, 2001 Fr endemic   15.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the lowermost small cataracts of rio Tapajós and close to the mouth of the Jamanxim River (Ref. 39753). Also Ref. 36389. 
Loricariidae Harttia duriventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira, 2001 Fr endemic   12.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Tocantins River (Ref. 36389). Only collected from the rapids above Tucurui, in the area now flooded by the dam (Ref. 40703). Also Ref. 36389. 
Loricariidae Harttia fowleri (Pellegrin, 1908) Fr native  Acari (Portuguese), Cachimbo (Portuguese)  22.16 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Oyapock River River (36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia garavelloi Oyakawa, 1993 Fr native   8.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Fanado and Araçuaí rivers (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia gracilis Oyakawa, 1993 Fr native    10.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the São João and upper Paraná River basins (Ref. 36389). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Loricariidae Harttia kronei Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 Fr native  Cascudo-chato (Portuguese), Krone's flat suckermouth catfish (English), Bituva (Portuguese)  12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Ribeira de Iguape River basin (Ref. 36389). Occurs in Betari River basin, Southeastern Brazil (Ref. 38979). 
Loricariidae Harttia leiopleura Oyakawa, 1993 Fr native  Cari (Portuguese)  5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Das Velhas River basin (Ref. 36389). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Loricariidae Harttia longipinna Langeani, Oyakawa & Montoya-Burgos, 2001 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  10.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia loricariformis Steindachner, 1877 Fr native    18.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Paraíba do Sul River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia novalimensis Oyakawa, 1993 Fr native   5.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Das Velhas River basin (Ref. 36389). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Loricariidae Harttia punctata Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira, 2001 Fr native   13.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper and middle courses of Tocantins River. Specimens collected from Pará, below Tucurui dam and Goiás, Xambioá, rio Araguaia; rio Passa Três; rio Tocantins drainage, Serra da Mesa (Ref. 39753). Also Ref. 36389. 
Loricariidae Harttia rhombocephala Miranda Ribeiro, 1939 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)    Known from the Farias River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia torrenticola Oyakawa, 1993 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  7.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia trombetensis Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira, 2001 Fr native   17.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Trombetas River basin, above Cachoeira Porteira falls (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Harttia uatumensis Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira, 2001 Fr native   11.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Uatumã and in at least 2 of its affluents, rio Pitinga (upper Uatumã) and rio Jatapu (lower Uatumã) (Ref. 39753). Also Ref. 36389. 
Characidae Hasemania crenuchoides Zarske & Géry, 1999 Fr native   6.72 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hasemania hanseni (Fowler, 1949) Fr native    3.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hasemania kalunga Bertaco & Carvalho, 2010 Fr native   5.33 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper rio Tocantins basin, tributary of rio das Almas, Cavalcante, Goiás State (Ref. 83954). 
Characidae Hasemania maxillaris Ellis, 1911 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   2.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Iguaçu River basin (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hasemania melanura Ellis, 1911 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   4.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Iguaçu River basin (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hasemania nambiquara Bertaco & Malabarba, 2007 Fr native   2.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs only in the upper Rio Tapajós drainage in Mato Grosso (Ref. 75743). 
Characidae Hasemania nana (Lütken, 1875) Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese), Piabinha vermelha (Portuguese)  2.66 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hasemania piatan Zanata & Serra, 2010 Fr native   5.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in streams riacho Três Morros and córrego das Piabas, small tributaries of upper rio de Contas drainage in Piatã, Bahia, northeastern Brazil (Ref. 83965). 
Characidae Hasemania uberaba Serra & Langeani, 2015 Fr native   7.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the headwaters of the rio Uberaba, rio Grande basin, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais (Ref. 104709). Status of threat: can be considered as Data Deficient (DD) until more information about its biology and geographical distribution is available. 
Doradidae Hassar affinis (Steindachner, 1881) Fr native  Mandí pirá (Portuguese), Bagre (Portuguese), Bicudo (Portuguese), Cabeça de burro (Portuguese), Mandi bicudo (Portuguese), Mandí bicudo (Portuguese), Mandi cachorro (Portuguese), Mandí cachorro (Portuguese), Mandi pirá (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Parnaíba River basin. Questionable records fom Río Itapicuru and Fortaleza (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Hassar gabiru Birindelli, Fayal & Wosiacki, 2011 Fr native   28.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Curuá, Iriri drainage, at Vila Castelo dos Sonhos, Altamira, PA, MZUSP 108440 (holotype of Hassar gabiru, 13.04 cm SL). Known from the middle to upper Xingu river basin, and is apparently endemic to the Xingu basin above the raids of Volta Grande, near Altamira (Ref. 87857). 
Doradidae Hassar orestis (Steindachner, 1875) Fr native  Botinho (Portuguese)   29.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Xingu (Ref. 6868). 
Doradidae Hassar shewellkeimi Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli, 2013 Fr native   22.09 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio Teles Pires and one or more sites in the upper rio Juruena (likely above mouth of rio Arinos), two large river systems draining northwestern portions of Shield uplands. 
Doradidae Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895 Fr native  Botinho (Portuguese), Mandí boca de flor (Portuguese), Mandí sacaca (Portuguese), Mandí serra (Portuguese)   25.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Tocantins in Troceros and Touceira (Ref. 6868). 
Potamotrygonidae Heliotrygon gomesi Carvalho & Lovejoy, 2011 Fr native  Gomes’s round ray (English)  13.50 cm WD male/unsexed  Found in the upper Rio Amazonas basin according to the material studied, but suspected to enter the lower reaches of most major tributaries and the lower Rio Amazonas basin as well (Ref. 86515). 
Potamotrygonidae Heliotrygon rosai Carvalho & Lovejoy, 2011 Fr native  Rosa’s round ray (English)  80.00 cm WD male/unsexed  Occurs in the upper, mid and lower Rio Amazonas basin, and probably also enters the lower reaches of its major tributaries (Ref. 86515). 
Cetopsidae Helogenes gouldingi Vari & Ortega, 1986 Fr endemic   4.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Collected from Igarapé 15 km from Humaitá along the Rio Madeira, Amazonas (Ref. 7462). Found in Machado River basin (Ref. 97589). 
Cetopsidae Helogenes marmoratus Günther, 1863 Fr native  Asicurrupa (Portuguese)   7.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon basin. 
Loricariidae Hemiancistrus cerrado de Souza, Melo, Chamon & Armbruster, 2008 Fr native   17.04 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in rio do Bugre, rio Vermelho and probably rio do Peixe, tributaries of rio Araguiaia, rio Tocantins basin in Goiás State (Ref. 79076). 
Loricariidae Hemiancistrus chlorostictus Cardoso & Malabarba, 1999 Fr, Sp native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   14.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Uruguay River basin, Passo Fundo dam (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba, 1999 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   16.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Hemiancistrus megalopteryx Cardoso, 2004 Fr native   28.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Tubarão drainage, Santa Catarina (Ref. 52458). 
Loricariidae Hemiancistrus meizospilos Cardoso & da Silva, 2004 Fr native   14.91 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the rio Chapeco system, tributary of the rio Uruguai (upper rio Uruguai basin) in Santa Catarina (Ref. 54753). 
Loricariidae Hemiancistrus punctulatus Cardoso & Malabarba, 1999 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   19.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Laguna dos Patos basin (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Hemiancistrus votouro Cardoso & da Silva, 2004 Fr native   14.12 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the arroio Lageado Grande, tributary of the rio Erechim, rio Passo Fundo system of the upper rio Uruguai basin in Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 54753). 
Characidae Hemibrycon jelskii (Steindachner, 1876) Fr native   7.79 cm SL male/unsexed ;10.17 cm SL female   
Characidae Hemibrycon surinamensis Géry, 1962 Fr native   9.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from lower rios Tapajós, Tocantins and Xigu basins, Pará (Ref. 85819). 
Doradidae Hemidoras boulengeri Steindachner, 1915 Fr native    19.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Hemidoras morei (Steindachner, 1881) Fr native  Cuyu cuyu (Portuguese)  10.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro River basin (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Hemidoras morrisi Eigenmann, 1925 Fr native    14.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Hemidoras stenopeltis (Kner, 1855) Fr native    19.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Doradidae Hemidoras stuebelii (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native  Shitari (Portuguese)  11.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 37054). 
Characidae Hemigrammus analis Durbin, 1909 Fr native    3.60 cm TL male/unsexed    
Characidae Hemigrammus arua Lima, Wosiacki & Ramos, 2009 Fr native   3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the headwaters of the rio Arapiuns (rio Branco and rio Aruã), rio Tapajós basin, and from the adjacent headwaters of the igarapé Juruti Grande, a right margin tributary of the rio Amazonas in Pará State (Ref. 81198). 
Characidae Hemigrammus ataktos Marinho, Dagosta & Birindelli, 2014 Fr native   3.77 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the middle rio Tocantins basin, from rio Santa Tereza, Goiás State, from the rio Manoel Alves basin, and from smaller tributaries of the rio Tocantins immediately downstream of the mouth of rio Manoel Alves, Tocantins State (Ref. 96858). 
Characidae Hemigrammus bellottii (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native    2.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Also Ref. 12225. 
Characidae Hemigrammus bleheri Géry & Mahnert, 1986 Fr native    3.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Middle Rio Negro basin, MZUSP 37369 (holotype of H. bleheri, 3.6 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 38376. 
Characidae Hemigrammus brevis Ellis, 1911 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese)   3.60 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus coeruleus Durbin, 1908 Fr native    5.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Manacapuru (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus cupreus Durbin, 1918 Fr native   5.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus diagonicus Mendonça & Wosiacki, 2011 Fr native   2.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, State of Pará, Lago do Piranha, Juruti, Lower Amazon, MPEG 10321 (holotype of Hemigrammus diagonicus, 2.8 cm SL). Known only from the Balaio and Piranha lakes of the lower Amazon River, Juruti, State of Pará (Ref. 87304). 
Characidae Hemigrammus durbinae Ota, Lima & Pavanelli, 2015 Fr native   2.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from central and western portions of the Amazon basins, at the middle and upper portions of the rio Madeira, lower rio Purus, middle rio Solimões/Amazonas, and lower rio Tapajós; and rio Paraguai basin (Ref. 101340). 
Characidae Hemigrammus elegans (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native   4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus filamentosus Zarske, 2011 Fr native   3.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Araguaya basin (Ref. 87321). 
Characidae Hemigrammus geisleri Zarske & Géry, 2007 Fr native   3.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from central Amazon (Ref. 58756). 
Characidae Hemigrammus gracilis (Lütken, 1875) Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese), Piaba da lagoa santa (Portuguese), Piabinha branca (Portuguese)   4.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus haraldi Géry, 1961 Fr native    2.73 cm SL male/unsexed    
Characidae Hemigrammus hyanuary Durbin, 1918 Fr native  Neon verde (Portuguese)   4.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus iota Durbin, 1909 Fr native    2.10 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hemigrammus levis Durbin, 1908 Fr native  common (usually seen) 5.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus lunatus Durbin, 1918 Fr native    4.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon, Paraguay (Ref. 96864) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus machadoi Ota, Lima & Pavanelli, 2014 Fr native   3.58 cm SL male/unsexed 2.54 Found in the upper rio Paraguai basin, from the rio Guaporé and some other smaller tributaries of the rio Mamoré and rio Madeira, on the upper and middle portions of the rio Madeira basin (Ref. 96864). 
Characidae Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis, 1911 Fr native  Bandeirinha de rabo amarelo (Portuguese), Bandeirinha de rabo vermelho (Portuguese), Lambari (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese) common (usually seen) 4.50 cm SL male/unsexed 1.8 TL Recorded from Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). Rather common in certain places (Ref. 598). Also Ref. 38376. 
Characidae Hemigrammus melanochrous Fowler, 1913 Fr native    3.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus microstomus Durbin, 1918 Fr native   4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus mimus Böhlke, 1955 Fr native   2.83 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus neptunus Zarske & Géry, 2002 Fr native    3.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Hemigrammus newboldi (Fernández-Yépez, 1949) Fr native    5.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hemigrammus ocellifer (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native  Lambari azul (Portuguese), Olho de fogo (Portuguese)   4.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon (Ref. 38376) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Characidae Hemigrammus orthus Durbin, 1909 Fr native   3.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Lower Tapajós River. 
Characidae Hemigrammus parana Marinho, Carvalho, Langeani & Tatsumi, 2008 Fr native    3.08 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the area of influence of the Ilha Solteira reservoir, upper Paraná system, southeastern Brazil, throughout margins of rio Grande, rio Paraná, rio Paranaíba and rio São José dos Dourados(Ref. 74938). 
Characidae Hemigrammus pretoensis Géry, 1965 Fr native   5.08 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Solimões River basin (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598, 96859. 
Characidae Hemigrammus rhodostomus Ahl, 1924 Fr native  Cara de sangue (Portuguese), Máscara vermelha (Portuguese), Rodóstomo (Portuguese), Tetra nariz vermelho (Portuguese)  5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Amazon region (Ref. 598). 
Characidae Hemigrammus rodwayi Durbin, 1909 Fr native    5.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus schmardae (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native   5.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon and Negro River basins (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hemigrammus silimoni Britski & Lima, 2008 Fr native   3.29 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded only from a type locality on the upper Rio Juruena, a tributary of the Rio Tapajós in Mato Grosso (Ref. 78749). 
Characidae Hemigrammus skolioplatus Bertaco & Carvalho, 2005 Fr native    Known from the upper río Tapajós drainage (Ref. 57598). 
Characidae Hemigrammus stictus (Durbin, 1909) Fr native    4.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Collected from Pará State (rio Araticum and rio Paru) and Amazonas State ( rio Negro and rio Amazonas) (Ref. 81198). Also Ref. 38376. 
Characidae Hemigrammus tocantinsi Carvalho, Bertaco & Jerep, 2010 Fr native   3.68 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Goiás, Cavalcante, rio das Pedras, Fazenda Córrego Fundo, MCP 44444 (holotype of Hemigrammus tocantinsi, 2.82 cm SL, male) (Ref. 84464). 
Characidae Hemigrammus tridens Eigenmann, 1907 Fr native   2.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Pantanal (Ref. 81048). 
Characidae Hemigrammus ulreyi (Boulenger, 1895) Fr native   4.40 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hemigrammus unilineatus (Gill, 1858) Fr native  Lambari pipira (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese)   5.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Amazon basin (Ref. 12225). Also Ref. 38376. 
Characidae Hemigrammus vorderwinkleri Géry, 1963 Fr native    3.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hemigrammus yinyang Lima & Sousa, 2009 Fr native   2.92 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from tributaries of the middle rio Tiquie, a tributary of the rio Uaupes, upper rio Negro basin in Amazonas state (Ref. 82434). 
Loricariidae Hemiodontichthys acipenserinus (Kner, 1853) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   13.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Acre River basin (Ref. 97592). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus amazonum (Humboldt, 1821) Fr native    20.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus argenteus Pellegrin, 1909 Fr, Fi native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese), Flexeira (Portuguese), Oma (Portuguese), Orana (Portuguese), Orna (Portuguese), Voador (Portuguese), Voador escama fina (Portuguese)   23.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 38289. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus atranalis (Fowler, 1940) Fr native  Cruzeiro-do-sul (Portuguese)   9.20 cm SL male/unsexed    
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus goeldii Steindachner, 1908 Fr native   16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amapá River basin (Ref. 38289). Also Ref. 35366. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus gracilis Günther, 1864 Fr native  Cruzeiro-do-sul (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese), Flexeiro (Portuguese)   16.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Negro, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões, Amazon River basins (Ref. 38289). Also Ref. 2037. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus immaculatus Kner, 1858 Fr, Fi native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese), Flexeira (Portuguese), Orana (Portuguese), Voador (Portuguese)   24.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Barra do Rio Negro, Brazil. Also Ref. 598, 38289. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus iratapuru Langeani & Moreira, 2013 Fr native   13.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Jari and its tributary, Rio Iratapuru, upstream of the Cachoeira de Santo Antonio (Ref. 93237). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus jatuarana Langeani, 2004 Fr native    Known from Rio Trombetas, Amazon basin (Ref. 53268). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus langeanii Beltrão & Zuanon, 2012 Fr native  Orana (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese), Cubio (Portuguese), Flecheiro (Portuguese)  13.56 cm SL male/unsexed  Known of the type locality in the rio Amana, rio Maués-Açu drainage, near the boundary of the States of Pará and Amazonas (Ref. 91067). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus microlepis Kner, 1858 Fr, Fi native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), Bananinha (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese), Flexeira (Portuguese), Orana (Portuguese), Piava-banana (Portuguese)   23.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Madeira and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 38289). Also Ref. 598, 12202. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus orthonops Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 Fr native  Bananinha (Portuguese), Peixe-banana (Portuguese), Piau-banana (Portuguese), Piava-banana (Portuguese), Tainha (Portuguese)   31.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;34.20 cm TL female    
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus parnaguae Eigenmann & Henn, 1916 Fr native  Avoador (Portuguese), Doirado (Portuguese), Voador (Portuguese)   14.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Parnaíba River basin(Ref. 38289). Recorded from the Rio Parnagua (Ref. 598). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus quadrimaculatus Pellegrin, 1909 Fr native   13.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Present in the Amazon basin (Ref. 598) and the Oyapock River which forms the border between French Guiana and Brazil (Ref. 12225). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus semitaeniatus Kner, 1858 Fr native  Bananinha (Portuguese), Falso cruzeiro do sul (Portuguese), Peixe-banana (Portuguese), Piau-banana (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Guapore, Amazon system, Brazil (Ref. 33021). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus sterni (Géry, 1964) Fr native   7.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Juruena River basin in Tapajós River drainage (Ref. 38289). Also Ref. 598. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus ternetzi Myers, 1927 Fr native    10.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Tocantins (Ref. 598, 38289). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus thayeria Böhlke, 1955 Fr native   8.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Solimões and Negro River basins (Ref. 38289). Also Ref. 38289. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus tocantinensis Langeani, 1999 Fr native   9.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Araguaia and Rio Tocantins (Ref. 31397). Also Ref. 38289. 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch, 1794) Fr, Fi native  Jatuarana (Portuguese), Charuto (Portuguese), Orana (Portuguese), Pacu-banana (Portuguese), Palito (Portuguese), Peixe-rei (Portuguese), Ubari (Portuguese), Uiarana (Portuguese), Voador (Portuguese), Voador escama fina (Portuguese)   26.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from Machado (Ref. 97589) and Guapore river basin, Rondônia State and Orinoco river, Para State. Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Hemiodontidae Hemiodus vorderwinkleri (Géry, 1964) Fr native   16.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hemipsilichthys gobio (Lütken, 1874) Fr native  Anhã (Portuguese), Cascudinho (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Cascudo barbado (Portuguese), Cascudo espinho (Portuguese), Cascudo pardo (Portuguese), Cascudo piririca (Portuguese), Couraçado (Portuguese), Mãe de anhã (Portuguese)  15.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Paraiba do Sul basin in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Ref. 42856). Museum: type locality not explicitly given, restricted to Paraíba do Sul River basin, ZMUC 76 (holotype of Xenomystus gobio Lütken, 1874) (Ref. 26282). Museum: Rio Paquequer ad Theresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, MNRJ 639 (holotype of Upsilodus victori Miranda Ribeiro, 1924) (Ref. 6868, 26282). Also Ref. 36817. 
Loricariidae Hemipsilichthys nimius Pereira, Reis, Souza & Lazzarotto, 2003 Fr native   10.51 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the state of Rio de Janeiro ( Perequê-Açu and Taquari river basins) (Ref. 50588). Type locality: Rio de Janeiro: Parati: rio Carrasquinho below the Cachoeira do Tobogã, upper Perequê-Açu basin, Penha, ca. 7.5 km west of highway BR 101, on road from Parati to Cunha (Ref. 50588). 
Loricariidae Hemipsilichthys papillatus Pereira, Oliveira & Oyakawa, 2000 Fr native   9.18 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the tributary of the rio Preto, rio Paraiba do Sul basin in Minas Gerais (Ref. 42856). Also Ref. 36817, 45132. 
Pimelodidae Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840) Fr, Fi native  Bico de pato (Portuguese), Boca de colher (Portuguese), Braço de moça (Portuguese), Giripóca (Portuguese), Jerepoca (Portuguese), Jeripoca (Portuguese), Jerupoca (Portuguese), Jurupensén (Portuguese), Jurupoca (Portuguese), Liro (Portuguese), Mandi açu (Portuguese), Mandubé (Portuguese), Mandubé pintadinho (Portuguese)   61.00 cm TL female 24 TL Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). Also Ref. 36506. 
Bryconidae Henochilus wheatlandii Garman, 1890 Fr endemic  Andirá (Portuguese), Anjirá (Portuguese)   41.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Mucuri and Doce River basins (Ref. 38504). Reported to occur only in the rio Santo Antônio basin, which has a total drainage area of 10,390 sq. km. However, since the species appears not to occur in the entire basin, its actual distribution area is substantially smaller. Using the IUCN (1996) criteria, status should be listed as endangered because is has a small distribution, known to exist in less than 5 locations, and its occurrence declining, area of occupancy and quality of habitat. Proposed to change its indeterminate status to endangered "EN B1+2abc" (Ref. 40429). Also Ref. 598. 
Trichomycteridae Henonemus intermedius (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889) Fr native   8.00 cm NG male/unsexed  Known from the Araguaia River basin (Ref. 39970). Type locality: Goias, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Henonemus macrops (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 39970). Type locality: Lake Manacapuru (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Henonemus punctatus (Boulenger, 1887) Fr native    9.00 cm NG male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 39970). 
Heptapteridae Heptapterus bleekeri Boeseman, 1953 Fr native   15.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the State of Amapá (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Heptapterus fissipinnis Miranda Ribeiro, 1911 Fr endemic   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Estrella basin, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 6868). 
Heptapteridae Heptapterus multiradiatus Ihering, 1907 Fr endemic    9.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Alto da Serra, São Paulo (Ref. 6868). Known from the upper Tietê River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Heptapterus mustelinus (Valenciennes, 1835) Fr native  Bagre (Portuguese), Bagre-de-pedra (Portuguese), Mandizinho (Portuguese)   26.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Uruguay River basin and coastal drainages of South Brazil (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Heptapterus ornaticeps Ahl, 1936 Fr native   6.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio de Janeiro. Also Ref. 36914. 
Heptapteridae Heptapterus stewarti Haseman, 1911 Fr endemic  Bagre da pedra (Portuguese), Chicote (Portuguese), Cobrissa (Portuguese)  13.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Serrinha Parana (Ref. 6868). Known from the Iguaçu River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Heptapterus sympterygium Buckup, 1988 Fr endemic   4.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the coastal lowalnds of eastern Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 36914). Museum: Mirim, MZUSP 19179 (Ref. 46206). Also Ref. 6868. 
Cichlidae Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840 Fr native  Acará-peba (Portuguese), Acara piranga (Portuguese), Acará-preto (Portuguese)   14.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the tributaries of the Solimões-Amazon River (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Heros notatus (Jardine, 1843) Fr endemic   15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Heros notatus, Essequibo river. Known from the Negro River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Heros severus Heckel, 1840 Fr native  Acará-peba (Portuguese), Acará-piranga (Portuguese), Acará-preto (Portuguese), Cará caroço de manga (Portuguese), Cará de lago (Portuguese), Cará tabaco doido (Portuguese)   20.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Negro River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 1739, 6466. 
Cichlidae Heros spurius Heckel, 1840 Fr native    15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Guaporé River drainage, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Acestrorhynchidae Heterocharax leptogrammus Toledo-Piza, 2000 Fr native   3.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River (Ref. 36811). Type locality, near mouth of río Arirará, Amazonas (Ref. 38319). 
Acestrorhynchidae Heterocharax macrolepis Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native   4.75 cm SL male/unsexed   
Acestrorhynchidae Heterocharax virgulatus Toledo-Piza, 2000 Fr native  Matapiri (Portuguese)  4.14 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36811). 
Characidae Heterocheirodon jacuiensis Malabarba & Bertaco, 1999 Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese)  3.98 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Laguna dos Patos drainage (Ref. 37055). Type locality: lagoon at left margin of rio Jacui, near bridge of road BR 290, Cachoeira do Sul (Ref. 34061). 
Characidae Heterocheirodon yatai (Casciotta, Miquelarena & Protogino, 1992) Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese)   4.18 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from a tributary of the rio Uruguay drainage (Ref. 34061). 
Loricariidae Hirtella carinata Pereira, Zanata, Cetra & Reis, 2014 Fr native   4.92 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from four localities in small rivers and creeks, tributaries to the Rio Panelão, itself a tributary to the lower Rio Pardo drainage, near the town of Camacan in southern Bahia State (Ref. 97864). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus acuen Silva, Roxo & Oliveira, 2014 Fr native   2.91 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from small to median-sized streams of the upper rio Xingu basin in Mato Grosso State (Ref. 106073). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus armatus Carvalho, Lehmann A., Pereira & Reis, 2008 Fr native   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, about 5 km south of Vila Basílio, on road to Pedro Osório, Arroio Arambaré, Pedro Osório, Rio Grande do Sul, MCP 41323 (holotype of Hisonotus armatus, 4.44 cm SL, female). Found in Laguna dos Patos system from the southern most Rio Jaguarão drainage, to the Rio Jacuí and Rio Taquari drainages. This is unknown from the headwaters of the Rio Jacuí and Rio Taquari drainages (Ref. 78747). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus bocaiuva Roxo, Silva, Oliveira & Zawadzki, 2013 Fr native   2.42 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from córrego Cachoeira in Bocaiúva, Minas Gerais (Ref. 95507). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus bockmanni Carvalho & Datovo, 2012 Fr native   2.11 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.35 cm SL female  Known only from Rio Cururu, tributary to the Rio Teles Pires, which is a tributary to the Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin (Ref. 91046). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus brunneus Carvalho & Reis, 2011 Fr native   4.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the rio Jacuí drainage, laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 86691). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus carreiro Carvalho & Reis, 2011 Fr native   3.58 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the headwaters of rio Taquari drainage, laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 86691). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus charrua Almirón, Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Litz, 2006 Fr native    3.59 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hisonotus chromodontus Britski & Garavello, 2007 Fr native   3.25 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Rio Tapajós drainage in Mato Grosso (Ref. 75061). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus depressicauda (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918) Fr native   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Tietê River basin (Ref. 36885). Type locality: Sorocaba, Rio Paraná (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus depressinotus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918) Fr native    3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Tietê River basin (Ref. 36885). Type locality: Piracicaba, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus francirochai (Ihering, 1928) Fr native   3.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Grande River basin (Ref. 36885). Occurs in the Pardo River, upper Paraná River basin, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 27745). Type locality: Creeks by Pirangy, headwaters of the Rio Turvo (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus heterogaster Carvalho & Reis, 2011 Fr native   4.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the tributaries of the rio Jacuí drainage, laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 86691). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus iota Carvalho & Reis, 2009 Fr native   3.34 cm SL female   
Loricariidae Hisonotus laevior Cope, 1894 Fr native   7.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Widespread in Laguna dos Patos system from southernmost tributaries of the laguna Mirim and canal São Gonçalo drainage to the tributaries of the northern rio Jacuí basin. Absent in the headwaters of the rio Jacuí basin (Ref. 86691). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Hisonotus leucofrenatus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1908) Fr native    6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio das Pedras of Rio Ribeira, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus leucophrys Carvalho & Reis, 2009 Fr native   4.22 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hisonotus megaloplax Carvalho & Reis, 2009 Fr native   4.71 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hisonotus montanus Carvalho & Reis, 2009 Fr native   4.51 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hisonotus nigricauda (Boulenger, 1891) Fr native   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná/Paraguay River basin (Ref. 36885). Type locality: Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus notatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 Fr native  Cascudinho (Portuguese)   4.33 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Santa Cruz and Juiz de For a (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus notopagos Carvalho & Reis, 2011 Fr native   3.73 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Camaquã drainage, laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 86691). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus paulinus (Regan, 1908) Fr native   4.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Tietê River basin (Ref. 36885). Type locality: Rio Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus prata Carvalho & Reis, 2011 Fr native   3.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the headwaters of rio Taquari drainage, laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 86691). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus ringueleti Aquino, Schaefer & Miquelarena, 2001 Fr native    4.34 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hisonotus taimensis (Buckup, 1981) Fr native   6.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Lago Mirim drainage (Ref. 36885). Type locality: Novo canal do Arroio Taim, Estaçao Ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus thayeri Martins & Langeani, 2016 Fr native   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the coastal basins of rio Paraíba do Sul, Lagoa Feia, rio Macaé, rio Itabapoana, rio Itapemirim, rio Novo, rio Benevente, and rio Doce in Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo states (Ref. 109747). Status of threat: Least Concern (LC) (Ref. 109747). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus vespuccii Roxo, Silva & Oliveira, 2015 Fr endemic    2.87 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.57 cm SL female  Found in the rio São Francisco and in three of its tributaries, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso (Ref. 114934). 
Loricariidae Hisonotus vireo Carvalho & Reis, 2011 Fr native   3.95 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Jacuí basin, laguna dos Patos system (Ref. 86691). 
Characidae Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Eigenmann & Norris, 1900) Fr native  Lambari-listrado (Portuguese), Lambari (Portuguese)   9.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in Betari River basin (Ref. 38979). 
Characidae Hollandichthys taramandahy Bertaco & Malabarba, 2013 Fr native   8.78 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the tributaries of the rio Maquiné and rio Três Forquilhas, rio Tramandaí system in Rio Grande do Sul and from rio Mampituba and Araranguá drainages in Santa Catarina. Extensive sampling efforts for the last 30 years in the rio Maquiné, rio Três Forquilhas and rio Mampituba drainages did not encounter this species in the main river itself, characterized by having clear and lotic water, stones on the substrate, and few riparian vegetation (Ref. 94715). 
Trichomycteridae Homodiaetus anisitsi Eigenmann & Ward, 1907 Fr native    4.90 cm TL male/unsexed    
Trichomycteridae Homodiaetus banguela Koch, 2002 Fr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in São João River, coastal basin of southeastern Brazil in Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 39970). Type locality, Rio São João, Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro state (Ref. 50838). 
Trichomycteridae Homodiaetus graciosa Koch, 2002 Fr native  Cambeba (Portuguese)   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal basins of southeastern Brazil in Paraná and São Paulo (Re. 39970). Type locality, Rio Florestal, Rio Sagrado, Morretes, Paraná (Ref. 50838). 
Trichomycteridae Homodiaetus passarellii (Miranda Ribeiro, 1944) Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal basins in Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 39970). Type locality: Córrego do Barro Branco, Baia de Guanabara, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Cichlidae Hoplarchus psittacus (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Acará paragaio (Portuguese), Acarra (Portuguese)   32.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Río Negro (Ref. 12251). 
Loricariidae Hopliancistrus tricornis Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1989 Fr endemic   10.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós and Xingu River basins (Ref. 36713). 
Erythrinidae Hoplias aimara (Valenciennes, 1847) Fr native  Traira (Portuguese), Traíra gigante (Portuguese), Trairão (Portuguese)  100.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rios Araguari and Amapá, state of Amapá (Ref. 57715). 
Erythrinidae Hoplias australis Oyakawa & Mattox, 2009 Fr native   44.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Uruguay basin (Ref. 81195). 
Erythrinidae Hoplias brasiliensis (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) Fr native  Traíra (Portuguese)   20.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the coastal rivers of NE Brazil, from the rio Paraguaçú in Bahia State to rio Jequitinhonha in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States, including rio de Contas and rio Pardo (Ref. 81195). Also Ref. 37025. 
Erythrinidae Hoplias curupira Oyakawa & Mattox, 2009 Fr native   29.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rivers of the Amazon basin including rios Capim, Tocantins, Xingu and Tapajós on the right bank of the rio Amazonas and rios Trombetas and Negro on the left bank, including upper tributaries of the rio Negro (rios Tiquié and Uaupés) (Ref. 81195). 
Erythrinidae Hoplias intermedius (Günther, 1864) Fr native    60.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais State. Disjunct distribution, known from the upper streches of rio São, rio Doce and rio Paraná basin (not known downstream of Sete Quedas); also in rios Grande, Paranaíba, Piquiri and in the tributaries of rio Doce, Minas Gerais State (Ref. 81195). 
Erythrinidae Hoplias lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 Fr, Fi, Aq native  Tariputanga (Portuguese), Trairaçu (Portuguese), Trairão (Portuguese)   75.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Ribeira de Iguape River basin in São Paulo and Paraná (Ref. 37025). Reported from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Erythrinidae Hoplias macrophthalmus (Pellegrin, 1907) Fr native  Aimara (Portuguese), Traíra (Portuguese), Trairão (Portuguese)  100.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 37025). 
Erythrinidae Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) Fr, Fi, Aq native  Traíra (Portuguese), Cipó de viúva (Portuguese), Dorme-dorma (Portuguese), Dorme-dorme (Portuguese), Jeju (Portuguese), Lobó (Portuguese), Lolaia (Portuguese), Pau de negro (Portuguese), Peixe preto (Portuguese), Robafo (Portuguese), Rubafo (Portuguese), Sabira (Portuguese), Taraíra (Portuguese), Tariíra (Portuguese), Traira (Portuguese), Traïra (Portuguese), Trairitinga (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 65.00 cm TL male/unsexed 16.7 TL Occurs in the Pardo River, upper Paraná River basin, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 27745), Pircacicaba (Ref. 50076), Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359), Uruguay (Ref. 79585), Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). Also Ref. 6029, 37025, 31923. 
Erythrinidae Hoplias microcephalus (Agassiz, 1829) Fr native  Traíra (Portuguese)   35.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco River basin (Ref. 37025). 
Acestrorhynchidae Hoplocharax goethei Géry, 1966 Fr native    3.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36811). 
Callichthyidae Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828) Fr, Fi native  Caborja (Portuguese), Atipa (Portuguese), Camboatá (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Curite (Portuguese), Tamboatá (Portuguese), Tamoatá (Portuguese), Tamuata (Portuguese), Tamuatá (Portuguese)   26.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). Also known from Pará (Ref. 26144), Piracicaba (Ref. 31923) and Machado River basins (Ref. 97589). Also Ref. 37395. 
Heptapteridae Horiomyzon retropinnatus Stewart, 1986 Fr native    2.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Cynodontidae Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine, 1841) Fr native  Pirantera (Portuguese), Cachorra (Portuguese), Pirandirá (Portuguese)   89.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38270). 
Cynodontidae Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier, 1819) Fr, Fi native  Cachorra (Portuguese), Cachorro (Portuguese), Gata (Portuguese), Paraya (Portuguese), Peixe cachorro (Portuguese), Peixe-cachorra (Portuguese), Pirandirá (Portuguese), Piranha (Portuguese), Saranha do rabo amarelo (Portuguese)   117 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). Probably a misidentification (occurrence in this country not confirmed by M.Toledo-Piza). 
Cynodontidae Hydrolycus tatauaia Toledo-Piza, Menezes & Santos, 1999 Fr native  Pirandirá (Portuguese), Cachorra (Portuguese), Pirantera (Portuguese), Wismati (Portuguese)  59.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38270). 
Cynodontidae Hydrolycus wallacei Toledo-Piza, Menezes & Santos, 1999 Fr native  Pirantera tariyari (Portuguese)   33.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 38270). 
Loricariidae Hypancistrus phantasma Tan & Armbruster, 2016 Fr native   12.33 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Uaupes, Rio Negro drainage, Amazon basin, Taracuá (Ref. 114591). 
Loricariidae Hypancistrus zebra Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1991 Fr endemic  Zebra pleco (English), Cascudo zebra (Portuguese)   7.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Xingu, Pará (Ref. 26754). Also Ref. 36713. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon agulha Fowler, 1913 Fr native    4.31 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Amazon (Ref. 598), Madeira (Ref. 38376) and Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon amandae Géry & Uj, 1987 Fr native   2.03 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Rio das Mortes, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 37367 (holotype of H. amandae, 1.9 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon amapaensis Zarske & Géry, 1998 Fr endemic   2.99 cm SL male/unsexed  Amapa Territory, in the vicinity of Macapa. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon balbus Myers, 1927 Fr native    6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Planaltina, Lagoa Fervedeira, Goiás (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon bentosi Durbin, 1908 Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese)   4.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Widely distributed in the Rio Amazonas. Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus Ellis, 1911 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese), Piabinha (Portuguese), Tetra amarelo (Portuguese)   4.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). Also Ref. 598 and 4537. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon boulengeri (Eigenmann, 1907) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  4.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Grande do Sol. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon brumado Zanata & Camelier, 2010 Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese)  3.16 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Brumado, tributary of the rio de Contas, a coastal drainage of eastern Brazil (Ref. 85847). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis Travassos, 1964 Fr native   4.91 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Cachimbo River, Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376) in Pará (Ref. 96859). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon coelestinus Myers, 1929 Fr native   3.31 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Goiás (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon copelandi Durbin, 1908 Fr native    5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Reported from the middle and upper reaches of the Amazon basin (Ref. 12225). Found in Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon cyanotaenia Zarske & Géry, 2006 Fr native   3.66 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hyphessobrycon diancistrus Weitzman, 1977 Fr native    3.72 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.50 cm SL female    
Characidae Hyphessobrycon diastatos Dagosta, Marinho & Camelier, 2014 Fr native   2.67 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the from tributaries of the rio Grande (rio São Francisco basin) draining east to the Serra Geral de Goiás, from the rio São Domingos (upper rio Tocantins basin) and rio do Sono basins (middle rio Tocantins basin) (Ref. 102657). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon dorsalis Zarske, 2014 Fr native   3.65 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Caures basin, Amazonas (Ref. 96662). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon duragenys Ellis, 1911 Fr native    6.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Parahyba and Tieté rivers. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon eilyos Lima & Moreira, 2003 Fr native   2.47 cm male/unsexed  Known from córrego do Rancho and ribeirão do Sapo, both tributaries of the upper rio Araguaia basin in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 52338). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon elachys Weitzman, 1984 Fr native   2.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon epicharis Weitzman & Palmer, 1997 Fr native   3.30 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native  Mato grosso (Portuguese), Mato-grosso (Portuguese)   4.00 cm SL male/unsexed 3 TL Recorded from the Amazon River near Villa Bella and Obidos. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon ericae Moreira & Lima, 2017 Fr native   3.97 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the lower rio Trombetas basin and the adjacent small rio Jamari basin at the northern bank of the Amazon River, the rio Curuá-Una basin at the southern bank of the Amazon basin, and westward to tributaries of the middle rio Madeira basin in Pará, Amazonas, and Rondônia states (Ref. 116179). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma (Fowler, 1943) Fr native   6.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon flammeus Myers, 1924 Fr, Or endemic  Engraçadinho (Portuguese), Lambarizinho vermelho (Portuguese), Rio tetra (Portuguese)   2.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in streams and coastal rivers of Rio de Janeiro State, in Guanabara bay basin, middle rio Paraíba do Sul basin and rio Guandu basin; and in the upper rio Tietê drainage (upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo State) (Ref. 96863). Also Ref. 598, 38376. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon griemi Hoedeman, 1957 Fr, Or endemic  Engraçadinho (Portuguese)  2.92 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in eastern coastal rivers from São Paulo to northern Santa Catarina (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598, 4537. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon hamatus Bertaco & Malabarba, 2005 Fr native   4.48 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from two tributaries of the rio Vermelho, in the headwaters of the rio Tocantins basin, Mambaí, Goiás, Brazil. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon haraldschultzi Travassos, 1960 Fr native   2.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Araguaia drainage, Ilha do Bananal. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon hasemani Fowler, 1913 Fr native    2.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Madeira river above falls of Guajaramirim. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon heliacus Moreira, Landim & Costa, 2002 Fr native   2.78 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the 5 tributaries of the rio Téles Pires, in the upper rio Tapajós basin. Type locality, riobeirão Macuco (= córrego Duas-bocas), tributary of the rio Teles Pires, rio Tapajós basin, 71.9 km north from Sinop, município de Cláudia, at BR-163 road in the direction to Santarém,, Estado de Mato Grosso. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi Géry, 1961 Fr, Or endemic  Neon-negro (Portuguese)  3.23 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 38376). Recorded from Mato Grosso (Ref. 598). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon heteresthes (Ulrey, 1894) Fr native   1.70 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus (Ulrey, 1894) Fr native  Bandeira alemã (Portuguese), Risca fogo (Portuguese), Tetra bandeira (Portuguese)   3.56 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Amazon (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon hexastichos Bertaco & Carvalho, 2005 Fr native    Known from the upper rio Tapajós in Mato Grosso (Ref. 56786). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon iheringi Fowler, 1941 Fr native   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Ceara. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon inconstans (Eigenmann & Ogle, 1907) Fr native   4.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Pará (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima & Costa, 2001 Fr native    3.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal streams in eastern Brazil (Ref. 38376). Type locality, small stream in ilha de Itaparica, Estado de Bahia, Brazil (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon kayabi Teixeira, Lima & Zuanon, 2014 Fr native   2.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Known so far from the lower Rio Teles Pires basin downstream from the confluence with Rio Apiacás, near the border between Mato Grosso and Pará states (Ref. 94770). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon khardinae Zarske, 2008 Fr native   3.94 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, rio Itaparana, Amazon, MZUSP 98667 (holotype of Hyphessobrycon khardinae, 3.94 cm SL) (Ref. 75699). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon langeanii Lima & Moreira, 2003 Fr native   5.85 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from several streams in the upper rio Araguaia basin, states of Mato Grosso and Goiás (Ref. 52338). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon latus Fowler, 1941 Fr native   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Ceara. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon loweae Costa & Géry, 1994 Fr native   3.16 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Estado de Matto Groso. Corrego Xavante, a tributary of the Rio Culuene, Rio Xingu basin. Also Ref. 27925. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon maculicauda Ahl, 1936 Fr native   4.30 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hyphessobrycon megalopterus (Eigenmann, 1915) Fr native  Tetra fantasma (Portuguese)   3.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Río Guaporé. May also occur in the upper Río Paraguay. Found in Pantanal (Ref. 81048). Also Ref. 38376. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon melanostichos Carvalho & Bertaco, 2006 Fr native   3.73 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the rio Doze de Outubro, a tributary of the rio Juruena, in the upper rio Tapajós basin, Chapada dos Parecis, Comodoro, Mato Grosso (Ref. 57598). Recorded from the Lagoa Azul, rio Paraguay basin in Mato Grosso (Ref. 96859). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon melasemeion Fowler, 1945 Fr questionable   3.88 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Hyphessobrycon melazonatus Durbin, 1908 Fr native   3.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon meridionalis Ringuelet, Miquelarena & Menni, 1978 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)  5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359). Found in coastal river basins of Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon micropterus (Eigenmann, 1915) Fr native  Piabinha (Portuguese)   2.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Bahia, Sao Francisco drainage, Barra (also called Barra do Rio Grande, Lagoa do Porto). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon moniliger Moreira, Lima & Costa, 2002 Fr native   3.05 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Araguaia-Tocantins River and upper Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376). Recorded from rio Paranã, rio Tocantins basin in Monte Alegre de Goiás, Goiás (Ref. 96859). Type locality, rio Água Fria basin, Tocantins (Ref. 42938). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon montagi Lima, Coutinho & Wosiacki, 2014 Fr native   3.11 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the headwaters of the rio Arapiuns (rio Branco and rio Aruã), lower rio Tapajós basin, and from a small direct tributary of the Rio Amazonas (igarapé da Ponte) in Juruti municipality, Pará state (Ref. 97524). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon mutabilis Costa & Géry, 1994 Fr native   2.69 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, tributary of Rio Sete de Setembro, Rio Xingú basin, 107 km southwest Canarana, Estado de Mato Grosso, MNRJ 12438 (holotype of Hyphessobrycon mutabilis, 2.32 cm SL) (Ref. 72430). Museum: MZUSP 45292, Buriti palm Cabiseru, rio Suia-Missu drainage, MZUSP 45752. Caterpillar swamp, 18 km of base camp, MZUSP 45753 (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon negodagua Lima & Gerhard, 2001 Fr native   2.82 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Paraguaçú River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon notidanos Carvalho & Bertaco, 2006 Fr native   2.86 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in Rio Doze de Outubro of the upper rio Tapajós basin in Chapada dos Parecis, Comodoro, Mato Grosso (Ref. 57598). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon paepkei Zarske, 2014 Fr native   3.38 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Demini basin, Amazonas (Ref. 96662). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon parvellus Ellis, 1911 Fr native  Piabinha (Portuguese)   2.16 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Catu and Itapicuru rivers in northeastern Bahia (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon peugeotorum Ingenito, Lima & Buckup, 2013 Fr native   3.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the middle rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós basin in Mato Grosso State (Ref. 93222). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon piabinhas Fowler, 1941 Fr native  Piabinha (Portuguese)  3.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Fortaleza, Ceará (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon pinnistriatus Carvalho, Cabeceira & Carvalho, 2017 Fr native    Type locality of Hyphessobrycon pinnistriatus, Mato Grosso State, Municipality of Novo Mundo, Parque Estadual Cristalino, igarapé affluent of Rio Cristalino. It is known from the Rio Teles Pires drainages, an affluent of the upper Rio Tapajós, Tapajós-Juruena ecoregion, Mato Grosso State (Ref. 118106). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl, 1937 Fr endemic  Tetra limão (Portuguese)  3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.60 cm SL female  Found in the Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376). Recorded from the Amazonas (Ref. 13676). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon pyrrhonotus Burgess, 1993 Fr native   4.54 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Erere, tributary of the Rio Negro, Amazonas (Ref. 13676). Museum: Rio Erere, tributary of Rio Negro, MZUSP 45714 (holotype o fH. pyrrhonotus, 4.24 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon reticulatus Ellis, 1911 Fr native    5.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal river drainages from Rio de Janeiro to northern Santa Catarina (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon rosaceus Durbin, 1909 Fr, Or questionable    3.42 cm SL male/unsexed  An aquarium fish without locality, thought to have been obtained in Brazil (Ref. 13676). Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon rutiliflavidus Carvalho, Langeani, Miyazawa & Troy, 2008 Fr native   5.81 cm SL male/unsexed  Presently found only in the córrego Pipa of the upper rio Paraguai in Mato Grosso (Ref. 74929). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon santae (Eigenmann, 1907) Fr native  Piabinha (Portuguese)   7.11 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the São Francisco River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon schauenseei Fowler, 1926 Fr native   3.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Inhangapy, Pará. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon scholzei Ahl, 1937 Fr endemic  Tetra preto (Portuguese)  4.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the lower Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). Recorded from the Para (Ref. 598). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon scutulatus Lucena, 2003 Fr native   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the type locality, rio Kaiapá drainage, a rio Teles Pires tributary of the rio Tapajós system (Ref. 54770). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon socolofi Weitzman, 1977 Fr native   5.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Barcelos, Rio Negro, Amazonas, MZUSP 13181 (holotype of H. socolofi, 3.89 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon stegemanni Géry, 1961 Fr native   3.12 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the lower Tocantins (Ref. 598). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon stramineus Durbin, 1918 Fr native   3.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Tabatinga, Amazon River, Amazonas. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon takasei Géry, 1964 Fr native   3.02 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Araguari (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Seera do Navio above Macapá, Amapá Terr., Lower Amazon basin (Ref. 12965). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon taurocephalus Ellis, 1911 Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   5.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Rio Iguaçu at Serrinha Paraná, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon togoi Miquelarena & López, 2006 Fr native    5.60 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.84 cm SL female   
Characidae Hyphessobrycon tropis Géry, 1963 Fr native   2.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Negro. 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon tukunai Géry, 1965 Fr native   2.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Amazon (Ref. 598). Found in the upper Solimões River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon uaiso Carvalho & Langeani, 2013 Fr native   5.29 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Uberaba, rio Grande drainage, upper rio Paraná basin. Preferably to be classified as data deficient (DD) until more information about its biology and occurrence on the basin is available (Ref. 94154). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon vilmae Géry, 1966 Fr endemic   2.94 cm SL male/unsexed  Known the upper Tapajós River basin (Ref. 38376). Recorded from the upper Rio Juruena (Ref. 598). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon vinaceus Bertaco, Malabarba & Dergam, 2007 Fr native   6.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in rio São João, in the headwaters of the rio Pardo drainage, a coastal drainage in eastern Brazil (Ref. 75059). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon wadai Marinho, Dagosta, Camelier & Oyakawa, 2016 Fr native   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the tributaries of the Rio do Sangue, affluent of the Rio Juruena, upper Rio Tapajós basin. Habitat of this species is relatively near human settlement and regions with intense riparian forest degradation for pasture, which may pose threat to its survival. It is preferable to consider this species as data deficient due to its unknown population biology and geographical range reductions. Thus, this species should be under data deficient (DD) classiification of the IUCN categories and criteria (Ref. 109743). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon weitzmanorum Lima & Moreira, 2003 Fr native    Known from tributaries of the upper rio Araguaia basin in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 52338). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon werneri Géry & Uj, 1987 Fr native   3.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Rio Guama basin (Ref. 13676). Museum: forest creek between Santa Maria do Pará and Sao Miguel de Guama, mouth of Rio Guamá, Pará, MZUSP 42365 (holotype of H. werneri, 3.2 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon wosiackii Moreira & Lima, 2017 Fr native   3.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the Igarapé Juruti Grande, a direct tributary of the Rio Amazonas, Pará state, near the border with Amazonas state (Ref. 116179). 
Characidae Hyphessobrycon zoe Faria, Lima & Wosiacki, 2020 Fr native   2.97 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Hyphessobrycon zoe, Pará, Obidos,Estacao Ecologica Grao Pará Centro, stream tributary of Rio Urucuriana, Rio Paru do Oeste basin. Known from small tributaries of the Rio Urucuriana, a tributary of Rio Paru do Oeste, which itself is a tributary of the Rio Trombetas basin, Amazon basin, Pará State (Ref. 125533). 
Characidae Hypobrycon leptorhynchus da Silva & Malabarba, 1996 Fr native   4.76 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Ibicuí, near pulp mill plant, ca. 27°33'S, 51°12'W, Rio Uruguai drainage, Campos Novos, Santa Catarina, Brazil. 
Characidae Hypobrycon maromba Malabarba & Malabarba, 1994 Fr native   4.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Uruguay River basin (Ref. 38376). Type locality: Rio das Marombas, under Irineu Bronhausen bridge, Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 26618). 
Achiridae Hypoclinemus mentalis (Günther, 1862) Fr native  Linguado (Portuguese)   21.60 cm SL male/unsexed    
Anostomidae Hypomasticus copelandii (Steindachner, 1875) Fr native  Piava-vermelha (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese)   54.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality of Leporinus copelandii. Known from Paraíba do Sul and Doce River basins (Ref. 36801, 123859); R. Parahyba and tributaries at Mendez; Juiz de Fora; R. Doce; R. Sao Matheos; R. Jequitinhonha; R. Quenda at Santa Cruz (Ref. 26282); Glória (Paraíba do Sul River Basin), Itabapoana (Itabapoana River Basin) and Mucuri (Mucuri River Basin) rivers (Ref. 123859). 
Anostomidae Hypomasticus despaxi (Puyo, 1943) Fr native  Piau (Portuguese)  16.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Present in the Oyapock River which forms the border between Brazil and French Guiana (Ref. 12225). Also Ref. 36801. 
Anostomidae Hypomasticus julii (Santos, Jégu & Lima, 1996) Fr endemic   26.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Xingu River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Rio Xingu, Cachoeira Kaituka, Pará (Ref. 42606). 
Anostomidae Hypomasticus lineomaculatus Birindelli, Peixoto, Wosiacki & Britski, 2013 Fr native   6.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Paru and Rio Jari, two tributaries of the left margin of the lower Rio Amazonas in Pará (Ref. 94192). 
Anostomidae Hypomasticus mormyrops (Steindachner, 1875) Fr native    21.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paraíba do Sul, Piabanha, and Doce River basins (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Río Parahyba and Río Piabanha, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Anostomidae Hypomasticus pachycheilus (Britski, 1976) Fr native    15.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Aripuanã River basin (Ref. 36801). Museum: Rio Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, MZUSP 13074 (holotype of L. pachycheilus, 15.7 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Anostomidae Hypomasticus steindachneri (Eigenmann, 1907) Fr native  Acará pinima (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese)  34.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Jequitinhonha River basin (Ref. 598, 36801) and Tiririca Lake, Doce River Basin (Ref. 123859) . 
Anostomidae Hypomasticus thayeri (Borodin, 1929) Fr, Thr native  Timburé (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese), Timburé-beiçudo (Portuguese)    Confirmed distribution from Paraíba do Sul, Doce and Itapemirim rivers (Ref. 79515) and reported occurrence in Jequitinhonha River basin (Ref. 36801) indicates otherwise from recent investigation (Ref. 79515, 79881). Also Ref. 36801. Status of threat: Vulnerable (Ref. 79515). 
Xenocyprididae Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) Fr introduced  Carpa prateada (Portuguese)   120 cm TL male/unsexed    
Xenocyprididae Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) Fr not established  Carpa-cabeça-grande (Portuguese)   146 cm SL male/unsexed  Has established in aquaculture through assisted/artificial reproduction (Ref. 1739). Reported from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Pimelodidae Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 Fr, Br, Fi native  Mapará (Portuguese), Lalau (Portuguese), Lau-lau (Portuguese), Mandubi (Portuguese), Mapa-racuii (Portuguese), Mapara (Portuguese), Mapurá (Portuguese), Moça (Portuguese), Olho-de-gato (Portuguese)   57.50 cm TL male/unsexed 23.3 TL   
Pimelodidae Hypophthalmus fimbriatus Kner, 1858 Fr, Fi native  Mapará bico de pena (Portuguese)    Type locality: Rio Negro. Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Pimelodidae Hypophthalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1840 Fr, Fi native  Mapará (Portuguese), Mampará (Portuguese)   55.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). 
Pimelodidae Hypophthalmus oremaculatus Nani & Fuster, 1947 Fr native    Known from Puerto Gaboto in the Rio Paraná (Ref. 6868). 
Hypopomidae Hypopomus artedi (Kaup, 1856) Fr native  Tuvira (Portuguese), Itui (Portuguese)  50.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma bianale Aquino & Schaefer, 2010 Fr native   5.37 cm TL female  Known from the Amazons (Ref. 84367). 
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma brevirostratum Aquino & Schaefer, 2010 Fr native   5.06 cm TL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma elongatum Aquino & Schaefer, 2010 Fr native   10.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Pará, Rio Tapajos, Itaituba, INPA 7240 (holotype of Hypoptopoma elongatum, 9.54 cm SL, female). Known from Lower Rio Tapajos and lower Rio Trombetas (Ref. 84367). 
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma gulare Cope, 1878 Fr native    10.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36885). Type locality: Upper Amazon at Calderon, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma incognitum Aquino & Schaefer, 2010 Fr native    10.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Rondonia and Roraima (Ref. 84367). 
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma inexspectatum (Holmberg, 1893) Fr native    7.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Descalvados, Mato Grosso (holotype of Hypoptopoma guentheri). Known from Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; no records for the upper Paraná upstream of Salto das Sete Quedas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) (Ref. 84367). 
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma muzuspi Aquino & Schaefer, 2010 Fr native   3.63 cm male/unsexed  Tocantins State, Araguaçu, rio Agua Fria, fazenda Praia Alta 2, estrada Araguaçu/Barreira do Piqui, 27 km ao norte de Araguaçu, MZUSP 52135 (holotyep of Hypoptopoma muzuspi, 3.63 cm SL, male) (Ref. 84367). 
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma steindachneri Boulenger, 1895 Fr native    10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River (Ref. 36885). Also Ref. 84367. 
Loricariidae Hypoptopoma thoracatum Günther, 1868 Fr native    8.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon (Ref. 36885). Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Hypopomidae Hypopygus benoneae Peixoto, Dutra, de Santana & Wosicki, 2013 Fr native   9.21 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the rainforest streams in the lower Rio Anapu in the Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, lower Amazon basin, Pará (Ref. 93869). 
Hypopomidae Hypopygus hoedemani de Santana & Crampton, 2011 Fr native   5.92 cm TL male/unsexed   
Hypopomidae Hypopygus isbruckeri de Santana & Crampton, 2011 Fr native   9.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Hypopomidae Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, 1962 Fr native  Itui (Portuguese), Tuvira (Portuguese)   10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Widespread in the Amazon (Ref. 12225). Recorded from Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basin (Ref. 97592). 
Hypopomidae Hypopygus nijsseni de Santana & Crampton, 2011 Fr native   9.60 cm TL male/unsexed   
Hemiramphidae Hyporhamphus brederi (Fernández-Yépez, 1948) Fr native   10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River at Santarem (Ref. 40614). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877) Fr native    39.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Campos (21°50'S, 41°20'W), Rio Paríba do Sul, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus agna (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907) Fr native  Anhá (Portuguese), Anhã (Portuguese), Mãe de anhá (Portuguese), Mãe de anhã (Portuguese)   22.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Ribeira, affluent of the Iporanga, Sao Paulo (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus alatus Castelnau, 1855 Fr native  Acari (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Cascudo chitão (Portuguese)   28.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Sabara, Minas Gerais Prov., Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908) Fr native  Cascudo ferro (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Cascudo preto (Portuguese)   40.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in rio Paraná-Paraguay basin including rio Iguaçu (Ref. 91066). Type locality: Rio Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911) Fr native  Cascudo bugio (Portuguese), Cascudo pintado (Portuguese)   21.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Pardo River, upper Paraná River basin, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 27745). Recorded from Córrego Barreiro (Ref. 53011). Type locality: Rio Tatuhy and Rio Piracicaba, Est. de S. Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus angipinnatus (Leege, 1922) Fr native   15.00 cm male/unsexed  Type locality: Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus asperatus Castelnau, 1855 Fr native   22.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Araguay, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus aspilogaster (Cope, 1894) Fr native   26.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Jacuhy, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus atropinnis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890) Fr native   21.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Goiás, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner, 1854 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   34.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality not explicitly given, restricted to Rio Parahyba (syntype not found in NMW). Museum: Im Rio. Parahyba , River Mucuri, River San Antonio, River Quenda, River de Pedra [restricted to rio Paraíba do Sul and tributaries, State of Rio de Janeiro], NMW 44196 (lectotype of Plecostomus luetkeni) (Ref. 6868, 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus basilisko Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich, 2014 Fr native    19.78 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Salobra basin of the rio Paraguay basin, Bodoquena Plateau in Mato Grosso do Sul (Ref. 97225). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus bimbai Zawadzki & Penido, 2021 Fr native   31.35 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Hypostomus bimbai, Bahia State: Paulo Afonso, channel of Rio São Francisco, Known from main channel of the Rio São Francisco downstream of Paulo Afonso IV dam, at the border of Bahia and Alagoas States (Ref. 124776). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus boulengeri (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  24.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypostomus brevicauda (Günther, 1864) Fr native   19.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Bahia, Brazil (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus brevis (Nichols, 1919) Fr native   7.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: State of Sao Paulo (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus careopinnatus Martins, Marinho, Langeani & Serra, 2012 Fr native   5.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Taquari drainage, upper Rio Paraguay basin , Alto Araguaia in Mato Grosso State (Ref. 91756). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus carinatus (Steindachner, 1881) Fr native   24.80 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypostomus carvalhoi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1937) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  14.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Granjeiro, Crato, Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus chrysostiktos Birindelli, Zanata & Lima, 2007 Fr native   25.97 cm SL male/unsexed  Widespread and found only in rio Paraguaçu basin, an independent coastal drainage in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 75060). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus cochliodon Kner, 1854 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   23.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Pantanal (Ref. 81048). Found in Rio Cujaba (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 36817. 
Loricariidae Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes, 1836 Fr native  Coroncho (Portuguese), Acari (Portuguese), Acarí (Portuguese), Bacu puá (Portuguese), Camboatá (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Cascudo asa branca (Portuguese), Cascudo cachichô (Portuguese), Cascudo cinzento (Portuguese), Cascudo comum (Portuguese), Cascudo panaque (Portuguese), Cascudo prêto (Portuguese), Cascudo trepa pau (Portuguese), Cascudo-chocolate (Portuguese), Guacarí (Portuguese), Iarú urá (Portuguese), Jaruitaquara (Portuguese), Pirá tatu (Portuguese), Uacarí (Portuguese), Uará urá (Portuguese), Vieja (Portuguese), Yaru itacura (Portuguese)   60.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Saint-Francois River (Ref. 36817). Also recorded from the Patos lagoon (Ref. 58359) and Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 6868. 
Loricariidae Hypostomus dardanelos Zawadzki & Carvalho, 2014 Fr native   18.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio Aripuanã drainage, downstream cachoeira Dardanelos (Ref. 95498). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus delimai Zawadzki, de Oliveira & Debona, 2013 Fr native   25.31 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the middle stretches of the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin (Ref. 93220). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus denticulatus Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli, 2008 Fr native   19.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Corumbá in the vicinity of the Corumbá Reservoir of the upper rio Paraná basin, mostly collected in the reservoir of the rio Corumbá just upstream from the dam and its tributary the rio Areia (Ref. 79067). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus derbyi (Haseman, 1911) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   31.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Iguaçu at Porto Uniao da Victoria, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus eptingi (Fowler, 1941) Fr native   12.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Fortaleza, Ceara (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus ericae Hollanda Carvalho & Weber, 2005 Fr native   24.03 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Tocantins River drainage in Goiás, on the region of influence of the Serra da Mesa dam (Ref. 56681). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus faveolus Zawadzki, Birindelli & Lima, 2008 Fr native   20.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from several localities in the rio Tocantins basin and the upper rio Xingu basin in central Brazil. A single record from the rio Meia, Ponte, a tributary of rio Paranaíba, upper rio Paraná drainage in central Brazil likely represents an unnatural occurrence as it is a common practice among recreational fishermen and ranchers from Goiânia area (capital of Goiás state) to release fishes from the rio Araguaia basin in artificial ponds in the rio Meia Ponte catchment area (Ref. 79072). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart, 1964) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   16.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Mogi Guaçu basin (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus francisci (Lütken, 1874) Fr native  Acari (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese)   36.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio San Francisco (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus garmani (Regan, 1904) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  13.02 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio das Velhas, eastern Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus goyazensis (Regan, 1908) Fr native   26.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Goiás, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus hemicochliodon Armbruster, 2003 Fr native   36.20 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rios Tapajos and Xingu of the lower Rio Amazonas drainage (Ref. 50589). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus heraldoi Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli, 2008 Fr native   23.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Corumbá and rio Grande drainages of the upper rio Paraná basin. This species was mainly collected from the Corumbá Reservoir and its tributary rio Pirapitinga (Ref. 79067). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus hermanni (Ihering, 1905) Fr native  Cascudo comum (Portuguese), Cascudo pintado (Portuguese)   24.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality of Hypostomus hermanni, Rio Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Ref. 6868). Known from southeastern Brazil (São Paulo, Piracicaba River and Tietê River basin) and southern Brazil (Paraná, Paraná River main channel and three of its left tributaries, Paranapanema, Ivaí, and Piquiri basin) (Ref. 124595). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus hoplonites Rapp Py-Daniel, 1988 Fr native    32.50 cm SL male/unsexed    
Loricariidae Hypostomus iheringii (Regan, 1908) Fr native   11.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Piracicaba, San Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus interruptus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918) Fr native   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Juquiá, Poço Grande, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus isbrueckeri Reis, Weber & Malabarba, 1990 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  24.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36817). Type locality: Rio Conceição, Ijui, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus itacua Valenciennes, 1836 Fr questionable   11.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypostomus jaguar Zanata, Sardeiro & Zawadzki, 2013 Fr native  Acari (Portuguese), Aacari-preto (Portuguese), Acari-pintado (Portuguese)  17.56 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in rio Paraguaçu basin, an independent coastal drainage in northeastern Brazil situated on the eastern slopes of the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State (Ref. 93813). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus jaguribensis (Fowler, 1915) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Jaguribe at Barrio Alto, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus johnii (Steindachner, 1877) Fr native   11.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Puty and Rio Preto, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus khimaera Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich, 2014 Fr native   16.38 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in several localities of rio Paraguay basin, such as rios Cuiabá, Manso, Quilombo, Coxipó, Coxim, baía de Chacororé, rios Vermelho and Aquidauana basins (Ref. 97225). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus kopeyaka Carvalho, Lima & Zawadzki, 2010 Fr native   22.61 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypostomus kuarup Zawadzki, Birindelli & Lima, 2012 Fr native   21.77 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Culuene, upper rio Xingu basin in Mato Grosso (Ref. 91068). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus laplatae (Eigenmann, 1907) Fr native   69.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Near Rio De Janeiro (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus latirostris (Regan, 1904) Fr native   26.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Jungada, Mato Grosso and Goiás, Brazil (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus leucophaeus Zanata & Pitanga, 2016 Fr native   15.82 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Itapicuru basin, a drainage located in the northern portion of the Bahia State. Captured mainly in the upper and lower portions of the basin. Anthropic activities such as construction of water reservoirs for cattle and human use have impacted most of the sampling areas (Ref. 110236). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus lexi (Ihering, 1911) Fr native   46.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Pardo, perto de Barretos, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus lima (Lütken, 1874) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   13.62 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio das Velhas, Ribeirao do Mato and Lagoa Santa, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus longiradiatus (Holly, 1929) Fr native   39.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Guaná, assumably a trib. of the Madeira, itself a trib. of the Amazon, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus luetkeni (Steindachner, 1877) Fr native    25.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Rio Parahyba, Rio Mucuri, Rio San Antonio, Rio Quenda, Rio de Pedra (restricted to rio Paraíba do Sul and tributaries), State of Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 36817). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus luteomaculatus (Devincenzi, 1942) Fr native  Cascudo amarelo (Portuguese), Cascudo chita (Portuguese), Chitão (Portuguese)  28.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypostomus luteus (Godoy, 1980) Fr native  Cascudo-amarelo (Portuguese), Cascudo-pintado (Portuguese)  40.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Type locality: Rio Pelotas at Volta Grande Dois, Marcelino Ramos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus macrops (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  28.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus margaritifer (Regan, 1908) Fr, Fi native  Cascudo pintado (Portuguese)   33.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). Type locality: Rio Piracicaba, San Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus melanephelis Zawadzki, Oliveira, Oliveira & Py-Daniel, 2015 Fr endemic    17.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Currently known only from the rio Tapajós basin, near Itaituba city, Pará State, Brazil (Ref. 103391). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus meleagris (Marini, Nichols & La Monte, 1933) Fr native    30.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Southeastern Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus microstomus Weber, 1987 Fr native    24.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypostomus multidens Jerep, Shibatta & Zawadzki, 2007 Fr native   19.75 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in several localities of the rio Paranapanema basin in São Paulo and Paraná. Also encountered in the rio Paraná in the transition from rapid to still waters at the beginning of the Itaipú Reservoir lake in the city of Guaíra (Ref. 75037). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus mutucae Knaack, 1999 Fr native   10.92 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Cuiabá River basin (Ref. 36817). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus myersi (Gosline, 1947) Fr, Fi native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   20.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). Type locality: Rio Iguaçu at Porto Uniao, Paraná, s. Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868. 
Loricariidae Hypostomus niger (Marini, Nichols & La Monte, 1933) Fr native   24.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Southeastern Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus nigromaculatus (Schubart, 1964) Fr native    10.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Cachoeira de Emas, Rio Mogi Guassu basin, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus nigropunctatus Garavello, Britski & Zawadzki, 2012 Fr native   23.29 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in rio Iguaçu, Paraná State. Occurs in the middle stretches of the rio Iguaçu, at Salto Segredo reservoir and at the mouth of rios Covó and Jordão (Ref. 91066). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus nudiventris (Fowler, 1941) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Choró, Ceará, near Fortaleza, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus obtusirostris (Steindachner, 1907) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  5.90 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Cubatao, Santa Catherina by Theresopolis, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus pantherinus Kner, 1854 Fr native   4.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Guaporé, Upper Amazon, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus papariae (Fowler, 1941) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  11.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Lago Papary, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus pastinhai Zawadzki & Penido, 2021 Fr native   25.08 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Hypostomus pastinhai, Bahia State: Paulo Afonso, channel of Rio São Francisco. Known from main channel of the Rio São Francisco downstream of Paulo Afonso IV dam, at the border of Bahia and Alagoas States (Ref. 124776). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus paucipunctatus Hollanda Carvalho & Weber, 2005 Fr native   18.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Itacaiúnas drainage, Serra dos Carajás, Pará (Ref. 56681). Recorded from the lower Rio Tocantins basin (Ref. 85327). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus paulinus (Ihering, 1905) Fr native  Cascudo preto (Portuguese)   13.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus peckoltoides Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli, 2010 Fr native   11.07 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Mato Grosso State, Municipality of Santo Antônio do Leverger, rio Cuiabá, upper rio Paraguay basin, MZUSP 105226 (holotype of Hypostomus peckoltoides, 11.07 cm SL). Knowm from its type locality, rio Cuiabá, upper rio Paraguay basin (Ref. 85849). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus perdido Zawadzki, Tencatt & Froehlich, 2014 Fr native   18.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Perdido, tributary to the rio Apa, rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State (Ref. 95502). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr, Fi native  Acari (Portuguese), Acarí (Portuguese), Acarí pedral (Portuguese), Acari-bodó (Portuguese), Armadilho (Portuguese), Bode (Portuguese), Bode de Igarapé (Portuguese), Bodó (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Guacari (Portuguese), Guacarí (Portuguese), Pirá tatu (Portuguese), Vacarí (Portuguese), Yau urá (Portuguese)   50.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese), Camboatá (Portuguese), Cascudo chinelo (Portuguese)  30.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio de Janeiro (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus pusarum (Starks, 1913) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   20.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Ceará, Mirim, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus pyrineusi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1920) Fr native    26.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). Type locality: Jamary, Rio Madeira, Amazon system, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905) Fr native  Cascudo-chita (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Cascudo barata (Portuguese), Cascudo-chitão (Portuguese), Cascudo-pintado (Portuguese), Chitão (Portuguese)   41.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Type locality: Rio Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus robertsoni Dias & Zawadzki, 2021 Fr native   13.57 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Hypostomus robertsoni, Paraná State, Município de Marialva, Upper Paraná River basin, tributary of Ivaí River, Keller River. This Ivaí River basin can be geographically divided into three portions: upper portion with steep slopes ranging from about 1200 to 600 m a.s.l. is a high gradient system; from this section, the median portion goes down to about 400 m a.s.l. having strong to moderate declivities; the lower section is marked by a very low declivity. This species occurs syntopically with H. hermanni in this basin, but while H. hermanni is most frequently captured in the Ivaí River main channel, H. robertsoni commonly occurs either in the Ivaí River and in smaller tributaries (Ref. 124595). Status of threat: This species is not abundant in scientific collections and does not present a wide distribution in the Upper Paraná River basin. Presently found only in the Ivaí basin, however it is possible that it occurs in adjacent basins and since there are no known imminent threats that would put the species at risk of extinction, this species may be categorized as Least Concern (LC), according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria (IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee, 2019). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus rondoni (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912) Fr native   8.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Tapajós at Sao Manuel, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus roseopunctatus Reis, Weber & Malabarba, 1990 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  23.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Type locality: Rio Pelotas at road from Esmeralda to Anita Garibaldi, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus scabriceps (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888) Fr native  Acarí (Portuguese), Bacu puá (Portuguese), Cascudo (Portuguese), Cascudo cachichô (Portuguese), Cascudo comum (Portuguese), Cascudo prêto (Portuguese), Guacarí (Portuguese), Iarú urá (Portuguese), Jaru itaquara (Portuguese), Jaruitacoara (Portuguese), Pirá tatu (Portuguese), Uacarí (Portuguese), Uará urá (Portuguese), Yaru itacura (Portuguese)   35.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Sao Matheus, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus scaphyceps (Nichols, 1919) Fr native   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Cerqueira Cezar, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus seminudus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888) Fr native    Type locality: Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus simios Hollanda Carvalho & Weber, 2005 Fr native   15.79 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from its type locality, Cupixi River in Amapá (Ref. 56681). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus soniae Hollanda Carvalho & Weber, 2005 Fr native   16.37 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós River in Pará (Ref. 56681). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus spiniger (Hensel, 1870) Fr native   28.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Plecostomus spiniger Rio Cadea (=Cadeia River), Rio Grande do Sul and of Plecostomus limosus Rio Grande do Sul (lectotype MCZ 7869) (Ref. 121236). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908) Fr native  Cascudo pintado (Portuguese)   16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Piracicaba, San Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus subcarinatus Castelnau, 1855 Fr native   31.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Minas Gerais Prov., Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus tapijara Oyakawa, Akama & Zanata, 2005 Fr native   37.83 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Ribeira de Iguape drainage in São Paulo and Paraná States (Ref. 54480). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   34.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus tietensis (Ihering, 1905) Fr native   12.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Tieté, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus topavae (Godoy, 1969) Fr native    70.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Cachoeira de Emas, Rio Mogi Guassu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus unae (Steindachner, 1878) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  18.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Una, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus uruguayensis Reis, Weber & Malabarba, 1990 Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  34.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Type locality: Rio Uruguay at "Rancho da Amizade", São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus vaillanti (Steindachner, 1877) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  18.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Preto at Villa de Santa Rita, Bahia, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus variipictus (Ihering, 1911) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)   37.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Pardo de Barretos, São Paulo (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus varimaculosus (Fowler, 1945) Fr native   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Hypostomus variostictus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912) Fr native   5.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Coxim, Mato Grosso (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus vermicularis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888) Fr native   19.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Parahyba, Rio Janeiro, Mendez, Macacos, Goyaz (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus waiampi Hollanda Carvalho & Weber, 2005 Fr native   19.39 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in its type locality, the Cupixi River, State of Amapá (Ref. 56681). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus watwata Hancock, 1828 Fr native  Acari (Portuguese), Acari do mar (Portuguese), Caraboï (Portuguese)   45.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Loricariidae Hypostomus weberi Carvalho, Lima & Zawadzki, 2010 Fr native   17.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Foundin the middle rio Negro area at Barcelos and its tributary, the rio Marauiá (Ref. 83896). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus wuchereri (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Cascudo (Portuguese)  35.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Bahia (Ref. 6868). 
Loricariidae Hypostomus yaku Martins, Langeani & Zawadzki, 2014 Fr native   7.08 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the rio Quente, a small tributary of rio Piracanjuba, rio Paranaíba drainage, upper rio Paraná basin in central Brazil. Although very abundant in the type locality, this restricted occurrence to areas with anthropic influence (e.g., urban expansion, tourism, organic pollution) requires special attention for conservation with frequent monitoring of the populations of this species (Ref. 97842). 
Cichlidae Hypselecara coryphaenoides (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Acarra pixuna (Portuguese)  16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Negro, Trombetas, Tapajós, Maués and Uatumã rivers (Ref. 36377). Common in the Río Negro (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Hypselecara temporalis (Günther, 1862) Fr native  Acará açai (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Acará-açaí (Portuguese), Cará (Portuguese), Cará de lago (Portuguese)   15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Solimôes-Amazon River, Oyapock River basin, and rivers of Amapá State (Ref. 36377). Also Ref. 9088, 35237. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias adornatus (Costa, 2000) Fr native   4.51 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.95 cm SL female  Occurs in the rio São Francisco basin, NE Brazil. Type locality, Estado da Bahia (Ref. 44211). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias antenori (Tulipano, 1973) Fr endemic    7.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the lower section of the rio Jaguaribe basin, and smaller coastal adjacent basins between Mecejana, Estado do Ceará, and Areia Branca, Estado do Río Grande do Norte (Ref. 49550). Also Ref. 27139, 36579. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias auratus (Costa & Nielsen, 2000) Fr native    5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, temporary pool close to rio Taboca, a tributary of rio Paracatu, rio São Francisco basin, Lagoa Grande, Minas Gerais. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias brunoi (Costa, 2003) Fr endemic   3.01 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the type locality, temporary pool near the city of Vila Boa, ribeirão Canabrava floodplains, upper rio Urucuia drainage, rio São Francisco basin (Ref. 49550). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias caeruleus Costa, 2013 Fr native    Known from Rio São Francisco (Ref. 111470). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias carlettoi (Costa & Nielsen, 2004) Fr native    Type locality, Temporary pool near Guanambi, off the road to Malhada, 14°13.989'S, 42°57.667'W, Estado da Bahia, elev. 500 m (Ref. 54621). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias coamazonicus Costa, Amorim & Bragança, 2014 Fr native   3.64 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.78 cm SL female  Found in a temporary pool in the floodplains of the lower Parnaíba River, close to the road between Pirangi and Araioses, Maranhão in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 94133). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias flagellatus (Costa, 2003) Fr native   5.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the floodplains of middle São Francisco and two main tributaries (Correntes and Verde), between Boa Vista do Lagamar (Bahia) and São Francisco (Minas Gerais) (Ref. 49550). Intensive collecting efforts in May 2009 found a single specimen in a second locality, about 35 km N distant from the first one, about 1.5 km from the São Francisco River bank (Ref. 89836). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias flammeus (Costa, 1989) Fr native    6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the middle rio Tocantins basin between Nova Roma, Goiás, and Peixe, Tocantins (Ref. 49550). Also Ref. 27139, 36579. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias flavicaudatus (Costa & Brasil, 1990) Fr, Thr endemic   8.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from middle rio São Francisco basin, between Irecê, Bahia and Santa Maria da Boa Vista, Pernambuco, NE Brazil (Ref. 49550). Considered cirically endangered due to small area of occupancy associated with the strong decline in quality of the habitat and abrupt reduction in subpopulations (Ref. 89836). Also Ref. 27139, 36579. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias fulminantis (Costa & Brasil, 1993) Fr endemic    6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the middle São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36579). Museum: swamp near Guanambi, Estado da Bahia, MZUSP 43674 (holotype of S. fulminantis) (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias ghisolfii (Costa, Cyrino & Nielsen, 1996) Fr endemic    7.28 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36579). Type locality, Guanambi, Bahia, Brazil (Ref. 49550). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias gilbertobrasili Costa, 2012 Fr native  scarce (very unlikely) 3.74 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.38 cm SL female  Known only from a seasonal swamp, middle São Francisco River basin in Município de Bom Jesus da Lapa, Estado da Bahia. The swamp consists of shallow channels within a savannah forest, situated in a shallow depression running perpendicular to the São Francisco River. The depression extends to the west towards the São Francisco River, where the area is intensively deforested and to the east by about 4.5 km within swampy savannah forest. Considered a rare and vulnerable species due to its small area of ocuurence (Ref. 89836). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias guanambi Costa & Amorim, 2011 Fr, Thr native   3.92 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in some seasonal pools adjacent to a small stream tributary to the Carnaíba de Dentro River, which is a right tributary of the São Francisco River, 13 km W of Guanambi, Bahia (Ref. 87364). Considered a critically endangered species due to rapid decline in the extent of occurrence and quality of habitat (Ref. 89836). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias harmonicus (Costa, 2010) Fr native    Known from the middle São Francisco River in northeastern Brazil (Ref. 84055). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias hellneri (Berkenkamp, 1993) Fr endemic    6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias igneus (Costa, 2000) Fr native   5.14 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.56 cm SL female  Known from the floodplains of the middle portion, left bank, of the rio São Francisco, between Barra and Igarité, Estado da Bahia, NE Brazil (Ref. 49550). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias janaubensis (Costa, 2006) Fr native   3.94 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Gorutuba floodplains, upper rio Verde Grande drainage (Ref. 57610). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias longignatus (Costa, 2008) Fr native   2.87 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.04 cm SL female  Type locality, seasonal swamp in the Pacoti River floodplains, road CE-040, about 25 km of Fortaleza, Município de Aquiraz, Estado do Ceará, UFRJ 6614 (holotype of Simpsonichthys longignatus, 2.52 cm SL, male) (Ref. 78710). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias lopesi (Nielsen, Shibatta, Suzart & Martín, 2010) Fr native   4.58 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.45 cm SL female   
Rivulidae Hypsolebias macaubensis (Costa & Suzart, 2006) Fr native   3.87 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.37 cm SL female  Known from the upper rio Paramirim drainage (Ref. 57610). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias magnificus (Costa & Brasil, 1991) Fr endemic    5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the middle São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias mediopapillatus (Costa, 2006) Fr native    Known from rio São Domingos drainage, a part of the upper rio Verde Grande drainage (Ref. 57610). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias nitens Costa, 2012 Fr native   4.09 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from seasonal lagoons in the floodplains of the lower Verde River, a right tributary of the middle São Francisco River, about 30 km N of the town of Itaguaçu,, Município de Itaguaçu da Bahia, Estado da Bahia (Ref. 89836). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias notatus (Costa, Lacerda & Brasil, 1990) Fr endemic    5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias nudiorbitatus Costa, 2011 Fr native    Known from the upper Itapicuru River basin in the semi-arid Caatinga area of northeastern Brazil (Ref. 88806). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias picturatus (Costa, 2000) Fr native   4.25 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.75 cm SL female  Occurs in the rio São Francisco basin, NE Brazil. Type locality, Estado da Bahia (Ref. 44211). Also Ref. 36579. 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias pterophyllus Costa, 2012 Fr native   6.49 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.64 cm SL female  Known from several localities between the vicinity of the town of Igarité and the town of Paratinga, both situated on the banks of the São Francisco River (Ref. 89836). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias radiosus (Costa & Brasil, 2004) Fr native    Known from the upper Rio Tocantins basin, central Brazil (Ref. 53226). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias radiseriatus Costa, 2012 Fr native   4.71 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.42 cm SL female  Known only from the floodplains of Verde Grande River near the village of Gado Bravo, São Francisco River basin in Município de Monte Azul, Estado de Minas Gerais (Ref. 89836). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias sertanejo Costa, 2012 Fr, Thr native   4.75 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.94 cm SL female  Found in the vast area of the floodplains in the upper part of the middle section of the São Francisco River, about 10 km wide on each side of the main river channel, along a straight line parallel to the river channel of about 140 km between the areas near the villages of Manga and São Francisco, Minas Gerais state. The combination of the extent and occurrence is estimated to be below 5000 square kilometer. The continuing decline of the area of occupancy and number of populations may suggest that this species is endangered. (Ref. 89836). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias shibattai Nielsen, Martins, de Araujo & dos Reis Suzart, 2014 Fr, Thr native   3.44 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.57 cm SL female  Found only in a temporary pool beside the highway BR-430, at Bom Jesus da Lapa, rio São Francisco basin in Bahia state. Can be considered as critically endangered due to the ongoing pace of disturbance in its only known habitat from a single pool (Ref. 94796). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias tocantinensis Nielsen, Cruz & Baptista, 2012 Fr native    Known from the Rio Tocantins basin in Maranhão state (Ref. 92140). 
Rivulidae Hypsolebias trifasciatus Nielsen, Martins, de Araujo, de Lira & Four, 2014 Fr native   3.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.40 cm SL female  Found only in a temporary pool beside the highway BA- 225, at Santa Rita de Cássia, rio Preto, rio São Francisco basin, Bahia state (Ref. 111470). 
Characidae Hysteronotus megalostomus Eigenmann, 1911 Fr, Thr native  Piaba (Portuguese)  4.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper São Francisco River basin (Ref. 38597). Type locality, Rio das Velhas, Mato Grosso (Ref. 30296). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Ictaluridae Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818) Fr introduced  Bagre americano (Portuguese)   132 cm TL male/unsexed    
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes adujai Géry, 1970 Fr native   6.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 38383). 
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes geisleri Géry, 1970 Fr native    5.52 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Madeira and Negro River basins (Ref. 38383). 
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes gracilis Géry, 1993 Fr native   4.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River basin (Ref. 38383). Museum: Rio Mamolé, affluent of Rio Cuiuini, Rio Negro system, MZUSP 45682 (holotype of I. Gracilis, 3.9 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes polylepis Géry, 1993 Fr native   8.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Madeira and Purus River basins (Ref. 38383). Museum: tributary of Rio Ituxiou, Rio Purus basin, MZUSP 45684 (holotype of I. polylepis, 8.45 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). . 
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes purusii (Steindachner, 1908) Fr native    7.50 cm SL male/unsexed    
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes rachovii Regan, 1912 Fr native    6.21 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River from Manaus to Belém, and coastal rivers close to Belém (north and south of the mouth of the Amazon River, including the Capim River) (Ref. 38383). 
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes spilurus (Günther, 1864) Fr native    10.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 598. 
Iguanodectidae Iguanodectes variatus Géry, 1993 Fr native    10.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Branco, Guaporé, Trombetas, and Urubu River basins (Ref. 38383). Museum: Igarapé Jatuarana, 5 km above Samuel, Rio Guaporé, Rondonia, MZUSP 45683 (holotype o fI. variatus, 10 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Pimelodidae Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken, 1874) Fr, Fi native  Mandi-beiçudo (Portuguese), Mandi (Portuguese), Mandi bicudo (Portuguese), Papa isca (Portuguese)   43.50 cm TL female 12.8 TL Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076) and the Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). 
Pimelodidae Iheringichthys syi Azpelicueta & Britski, 2012 Fr native   22.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper rio Paraná (Ref. 89852). 
Pristigasteridae Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro, 1920) Fr, Fi native  Apapa (Portuguese), Apapá (Portuguese), Asuna nahui (Portuguese), Sardinhão (Portuguese)   19.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 50628). Also Ref. 12202. 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis borodini Mees & Cala, 1989 Fr endemic  Bagre (Portuguese), Mandi (Portuguese), Mané-comprido (Portuguese)   15.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the upper courses of Paraná, São Francisco, and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 36914). Type locality: Franca, Rio Grande, Prov. of Sao Paulo (Ref. 6868, 26282). 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis cochabambae (Fowler, 1940) Fr native    6.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Heptapteridae Imparfinis guttatus (Pearson, 1924) Fr native    12.70 cm SL male/unsexed   
Heptapteridae Imparfinis hasemani Steindachner, 1915 Fr endemic   8.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Branco and Tapajós River basins (Ref. 36914). Type locality, Rio Surumú near Serra do Mello; Rio Branco at Bem Querer; Rio Tapajos near Santarém, Pará (Ref. 36656). 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis hollandi Haseman, 1911 Fr native   23.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Iguaçu in Porto União da Victoria, Sta. Catarina (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 36914. 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis minutus (Lütken, 1874) Fr native  Bagre (Portuguese), Bagrinho (Portuguese), Mandi (Portuguese), Mandizinho (Portuguese)   12.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the upper São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36914). Type locality, Rio das Velhas (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis mirini Haseman, 1911 Fr endemic  Bagrinho (Portuguese), Lobó (Portuguese), Mandizinho (Portuguese)   8.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Araguaia and Paraná River basins (Ref. 36914). Recorded from the Jacutinga and Quinta streams, in Piracicaba, São Paulo (Ref. 6868), and Pardo River, upper Paraná River basin, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 27745). Recorded from Córrego Barreiro (Ref. 53011). 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis piperatus Eigenmann & Norris, 1900 Fr endemic  Mandi pintado (Portuguese)  3.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in Betari River basin, Southeastern Brazil (Ref. 38979). Type locality: Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 36914. 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis pristos Mees & Cala, 1989 Fr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Negro River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes, 1956) Fr endemic  Bagrinho (Portuguese), Lobó (Portuguese), Mandizinho (Portuguese)  9.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 36914). 
Heptapteridae Imparfinis stictonotus (Fowler, 1940) Fr native  Bagrinho (Portuguese), Mandizinho (Portuguese)   4.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Mamoré/Madeira River, Paraguay (Ref. 36914), Machado (Ref. 97589) and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Characidae Inpaichthys kerri Géry & Junk, 1977 Fr native  Puxa-puxa (Portuguese)  2.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Aripuanã River, upper Madeira River basin, Mato Grosso (Ref. 38376). 
Rhamphichthyidae Iracema caiana Triques, 1996 Fr native   36.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Jauaperi River basin in Negro River drainage (Ref. 36685). 
Loricariidae Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline, 1947) Fr native   8.15 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Betari, in the rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, in São Paulo State. Type locality, almost certainly the Ribeirão do Monjolinho in the Iporanga basin of Sao Paulol (Ref. 42856). Also Ref. 6868, 36817. 
Loricariidae Isbrueckerichthys calvus Jerep, Shibatta, Pereira & Oyakawa, 2006 Fr native   9.02 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the córrego Juruba and ribeirão Agua dos Oito, affluents of rio Taquara of the rio Tibagi basin in Paraná State (Ref. 57731). 
Loricariidae Isbrueckerichthys duseni (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907) Fr native  Cascudinho (Portuguese)  9.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the upper reaches of the rio Ribeira do Iguape, in Paraná State. Type locality: ribeirão do Monjolinho, 300 m above sea level, a tributary of the rio Betari, near Iporanga, Sao Paulo (Ref. 42856). Also Ref. 6868, 36817. 
Loricariidae Isbrueckerichthys epakmos Pereira & Oyakawa, 2003 Fr endemic   10.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: rio Verde at Piúva, a tributary of the R. Ribeira de Iguape basin, São Paulo State. Other localities: rio Juquiá, same basin, at Cachoeira de Fumaça; rio Coruja, tributary to rio Juquiá, near Cachoeira do Chá (Ref. 52250). 
Loricariidae Isbrueckerichthys saxicola Jerep, Shibatta, Pereira & Oyakawa, 2006 Fr native   8.77 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the headwater of ribeirão Jacutinga of the rio Tibagi basin in Paraná State (Ref. 57731). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis agreste Lima, Neves & Campos-Paiva, 2013 Fr native   4.41 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from rio Tarugo, a tributary of the rio Uruba, that flows into rio Gongogi, principal drainage of right margin on the middle section of rio de Contas basin in Bahia State (Ref. 94155). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis amazonicus (Steindachner, 1882) Fr native  Candiru (Portuguese), Cambeva (Portuguese)   7.50 cm NG male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon (Ref. 39970) and Machado River basins (Ref. 97589). Type locality: Codajaz, Brazil (Ref. 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis apteryx Datovo, 2014 Fr native   6.72 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the reservoir formed during the building of the Buriti Hydroelectric Dam, across the Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Rio Amazonas drainage in Pará State (Ref. 95610). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis australis Datovo & de Pinna, 2014 Fr native   7.56 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Laguna dos Patos basin (Ref. 95054). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis bambui Bichuette & Trajano, 2004 Fr native   4.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in two upper tributaries of the main stream in the Angelica Cave which are 7,000 m far apart, indicating a wide distribution in the epikarst (Ref. 55401). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis boitata Ferrer, Donin & Malabarba, 2015 Fr native   12.26 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Araranguá, rio Mampituba and rio Tramandaí basins in southern Brazil (Ref. 104908). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis cahyensis Sarmento-Soares, Martins-Pinheiro, Aranda & Chamon, 2006 Fr native    4.86 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in rio Palmares, a tributary of the rio Cahy, a small coastal river drainage from southeastern Bahia State (Ref. 57703). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis compactus Silva Castro & Wosiacki, 2017 Fr native   2.58 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from rio Iratapuru, a left-bank tributary of the rio Jari, Amapá State. The hydroelectric dam of Santo Antônio do Jari, situated between the municipalities of Almeirim in Pará and Laranjal do Jari in Amapá, is the main threat of this species as it abruptly alters the natural characteristics of the regional aquatic ecosystem and can affect the survival of this and other species (Ref. 116503). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis eichorniarum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912) Fr native   5.69 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraguay River basin (Ref. 39970). Type locality: Cácares, Rio Paraguay, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis epikarsticus Bichuette & Trajano, 2004 Fr native  scarce (very unlikely) 3.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from a single set of rimstone dams in São Mateus Cave, central Brazil (Ref. 55401). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis goya Datovo, Aquino & Langeani, 2016 Fr native   9.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality of Ituglanis goya, Goiás, Planaltina, district of São Gabriel de Goiás; Rio Tocantins basin, Ribeirão Cocal, under bridge of GO-118 Road. Known from the tributaries of the right margin of the Rio Paranaíba, Upper Paraná, La Plata Province, and from several watercourses of the upper portion of the Rio Tocantins basin, Amazon Province (Ref. 117615). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis herberti (Miranda Ribeiro, 1940) Fr native   16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Bodoquena River in Paraguay River basin (Ref. 39970). Type locality: Rio Bodoquena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (Ref. 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis ina Wosiacki, Dutra & Mendonça, 2012 Fr native   6.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality. Known from the tributaries of rio Parauapebas, a tributary of the rio Itacaiúnas, which is in turn a tributary of the right bank of the rio Tocantins, Serra dos Carajás, State of Pará (Ref. 91742). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis macunaima Datovo & Landim, 2005 Fr native   4.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Araguaia basin in Mato Grosso (Ref. 56915). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis mambai Bichuette & Trajano, 2008 Fr native   6.83 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in a single subterranean stream inside the Lapa do Sumidouro Cave (upper rio Tocantins basin) in Posse, northeastern State of Goiás (Ref. 75008). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis paraguassuensis Campos-Paiva & Costa, 2007 Fr native   4.30 cm SL male/unsexed   
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis parahybae (Eigenmann, 1918) Fr native    5.10 cm NG male/unsexed  Known from Paraíba do Sul and São João River basins (Ref. 39970). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis parkoi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1944) Fr native   17.00 cm NG male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 39970). Type locality: Rio Javarí [R. Iticoaí], Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis passensis Fernández & Bichuette, 2002 Fr native   7.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, subterranean stream in the Tocantins drainage, Passa Três cave, São Domingos, Goiás (Ref. 46923). Also Ref. 39970. 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis proops (Miranda Ribeiro, 1908) Fr native   8.70 cm NG male/unsexed  Known from the Ribeira de Iguape River basin (Ref. 39970). Recorded from Rio Paraiba basin; Sao Paulo (Ref. 6868). 
Trichomycteridae Ituglanis ramiroi Bichuette & Trajano, 2004 Fr native   3.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in a pool formed by infiltration of water in the São Bernardo Cave in central Brazil (Ref. 55401). 
Anablepidae Jenynsia diphyes Lucinda, Ghedotti & da Graça, 2006 Fr native   5.51 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.30 cm SL female  Presently found only in Córrego Passo do Aterrado and Rio das Torres, both tributaries of the left margin of the Rio Jordão in the Rio Iguaçu drainage (Ref. 75966). 
Anablepidae Jenynsia eigenmanni (Haseman, 1911) Fr native     Type locality, creek near Serrinha Paraná, Rio Iguassu (Ref. 26282). 
Anablepidae Jenynsia eirmostigma Ghedotti & Weitzman, 1995 Fr native    7.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Uruguay and Jacui River basins (Ref. 80013). Type locality, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Manoel Leao, Município de Cambará do Sul, near Sao José dos Ausentes, Brazil (Ref. 30913). Also Ref. 33161. 
Anablepidae Jenynsia lineata (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native   5.50 cm SL male/unsexed 3.75 SL Known from the Lago de Freitas in Rio de Janeiro. Also Ref. 4537. 
Anablepidae Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) Fr native  Barrigudinho (Portuguese)   8.80 cm TL male/unsexed ;8.60 cm SL female  Recorded from the southern Río Grande do Sul Province. 
Anablepidae Jenynsia onca Lucinda, Reis & Quevedo, 2002 Fr native    4.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.73 cm SL female  Known from the Rio Ibicui drainage, a tributary of lower Rio Uruguai (Ref. 42933). Type locality, rio Inhacundá about 500 m upstream pottery, Rio Grande do Sul (Ref. 42933). 
Anablepidae Jenynsia sanctaecatarinae Ghedotti & Weitzman, 1996 Fr native    3.70 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.18 cm SL female  Type locality, Rio Pique off road between Meleiro and Aranagua, Morro Cortado, Santa Catarina (Ref. 30912). 
Anablepidae Jenynsia unitaenia Ghedotti & Weitzman, 1995 Fr native    7.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in coastal rivers in Santa Catarina and northeastern Rio Grande do Sul States (Ref. 80013). Type locality, Rio Faxinalzinho at Mae dos Homens near Praia Grande, Município de Praia Grande, Santa Catarina (Ref. 30913). 
Anablepidae Jenynsia weitzmani Ghedotti, Meisner & Lucinda, 2001 Fr native    7.60 cm SL male/unsexed ;7.02 cm SL female  Type locality: Trib. of rio Pinheiros near Anitápolis, 7 km from road SC-407, ca. 27°54'S, 49°07'W, Santa Catarina State, Brazil (Ref. 45800). 
Characidae Jupiaba acanthogaster (Eigenmann, 1911) Fr native  Lambari (Portuguese)   5.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Paraguay, upper Tapajos and Tocantins River basins (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Jupiaba ajuricaba (Marinho & Lima, 2009) Fr native   9.52 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper rio Negro basin at the rio Tiquié, a large tributary from the rio Uaupés, the middle and lower rio Negro areas at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro and Anavilhanas archipelago, respectively, and the lower rio Tapajós basin. Also recorded from the lago Castanho, a large lake connected to the better-known lago Janauacá, both of which are situated at the floodplains of the rio Solimões, in the central Amazon basin (Ref. 81201). 
Characidae Jupiaba anterior (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native   11.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Jupiaba anteroides (Géry, 1965) Fr native    7.45 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper Amazon and Curuá-Una River basins (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Jupiaba apenima Zanata, 1997 Fr native   5.86 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Peixoto de Azevedo and Noedori River basins (Ref. 38376). Recorded from Almas, Rio do Peixe, rio Tocantins basin in Tocantins (Ref. 96859). 
Characidae Jupiaba asymmetrica (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native    Found in the upper Amazon River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Jupiaba atypindi Zanata, 1997 Fr native    Found in Negro River and some of its tributaries including the Uraricoera, Surumu, and Cuminá rivers (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Jupiaba citrina Zanata & Ohara, 2009 Fr native   6.05 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Jupiaba elassonaktis Pereira & Lucinda, 2007 Fr native    Known from the rio Tocantins drainage (Ref. 72401). 
Characidae Jupiaba iasy Netto-Ferreira, Zanata, Birindelli & Sousa, 2009 Fr native   4.71 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Jupiaba kurua Birindelli, Zanata, Sousa & Netto-Ferreira, 2009 Fr native   8.66 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper rio Curuá (above the two great falls in Serra do Cachimbo), a tributary of rio Iriri, a large tributary of the lower rio Xingu. Its absence below the waterfalls suggests that this species might be restricted to the isolated river portion above the falls (Ref. 80699). 
Characidae Jupiaba minor (Travassos, 1964) Fr native    Found in the and Cachimbo River basin in Pará (Ref. 38376). Recorded from Rio Tapajoz basin (Ref. 598). 
Characidae Jupiaba ocellata (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail, 1996) Fr native   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Rio Paru de Oeste in the state of Para and in Curua Una (Ref. 12225). 
Characidae Jupiaba paranatinga Netto-Ferreira, Zanata, Birindelli & Sousa, 2009 Fr native   3.76 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Jupiaba pirana Zanata, 1997 Fr native   4.35 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Jupiaba poekotero Zanata & Lima, 2005 Fr native  Utaseã (Portuguese), Poekotero-potatigu (Portuguese), Utasako (Portuguese)  6.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the upper Rio Tiquié, a tributary of the lower course of the Rio Uaupés (Vaupés in Colombia), upper Rio Negro basin in Amazonas (Ref. 54762). Collected only at Caruru and nearby sites dowstreams (Ref. 54762). 
Characidae Jupiaba polylepis (Günther, 1864) Fr native   7.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Xingu, Tocantins and Araguaia rivers. 
Characidae Jupiaba poranga Zanata, 1997 Fr native   8.02 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Jupiaba scologaster (Weitzman & Vari, 1986) Fr native   3.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Museum: Amazonas, Rio Negro, MZUSP 30247 (Ref. 27925). 
Characidae Jupiaba yarina Zanata, 1997 Fr native   7.73 cm SL male/unsexed   
Characidae Jupiaba zonata (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native    4.71 cm SL male/unsexed  Reported from Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Engraulidae Jurengraulis juruensis (Boulenger, 1898) Fr native    17.90 cm SL male/unsexed    
Doradidae Kalyptodoras bahiensis Higuchi, Britski & Garavello, 1990 Fr native  Peracuca (Portuguese)   24.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio Paraguaçu (Ref. 26714). 
Crenuchidae Klausewitzia ritae Géry, 1965 Fr native   2.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 km below Leticia, Amazonas (Ref. 13683). Also Ref. 37059. 
Characidae Knodus breviceps (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native  Piaba (Portuguese)   8.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Knodus chapadae (Fowler, 1906) Fr native   5.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from Mato Grosso (Ref. 598). Known from the upper Paraguay River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Knodus delta Géry, 1972 Fr native    3.61 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Purus and Acre River basins (Ref. 97592). 
Characidae Knodus dorsomaculatus Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira, 2010 Fr native   4.81 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Pará, Jacareacanga, tributary of the Teles Pires River, Tapajós Basin, MZUSP 102823 (holotype of Knodus dorsomaculatus, 4.8 cm SL). Known only from the Teles Pires River, a tributary of the Tapajós River (Ref. 85071). 
Characidae Knodus figueiredoi Esguícero & Castro, 2014 Fr native   3.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio das Gasças, upper Rio Araguaia basin (Ref. 97362). 
Characidae Knodus geryi Lima, Britski & Machado, 2004 Fr native   6.48 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the rio do Peixe, a tributary of the rio Cabaçal, in the upper rio Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso (Ref. 55831). 
Characidae Knodus heteresthes (Eigenmann, 1908) Fr native   5.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Rio Tapajoz (Ref. 12225). Found in Machado river basin (Ref. 97589). 
Characidae Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903) Fr native    4.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Knodus savannensis Géry, 1961 Fr native   5.96 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Knodus smithi (Fowler, 1913) Fr native    3.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Madeira River basin (Ref. 38376). 
Characidae Knodus tiquiensis Ferreira & Lima, 2006 Fr native   7.26 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in upper Rio Tiquié basin, a tributary of the Rio Uaupés in the upper Rio Negro basin, Amazonas. Widely distributed in the upper Rio Tiquié, occurring above large waterfalls such as the Cachoeira do Caruru, Cachoeira da Pedra Curta, and Cachoeira Comprida. Reported by Tukano and Tuyuka fishermen to occur all along the upper Rio Tiquié (Ref. 75965). 
Characidae Knodus victoriae (Steindachner, 1907) Fr native     Recorded from the Parnahyba river. 
Characidae Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi Malabarba, Lima & Weitzman, 2004 Fr native   3.05 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.10 cm SL female  Found only in rio Pratinha in Bahia, a tributary of the rio Santo Antônio, itself a tributary of the rio Paraguaçu, a coastal drainage of eastern Brazil (Ref. 76978). 
Characidae Kolpotocheirodon theloura Malabarba & Weitzman, 2000 Fr native  Lambari (Creole, Portuguese), Piabinha (Creole, Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese)  2.99 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the uppermost tributaries of the São Francisco and Paraná rivers near Brasília (Ref. 37055). 
Cichlidae Krobia guianensis (Regan, 1905) Fr native    12.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Araguari river basin, Amapá (Ref. 101387). 
Cichlidae Krobia xinguensis Kullander, 2012 Fr native   8.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the Xingu river drainage, with several localities in headwaters in Mato Grosso and the type locality at the Ilha Babaquara, close to Altamira (Ref. 89398) 
Loricariidae Kronichthys heylandi (Boulenger, 1900) Fr native  Cascudinho (Portuguese), Heyland's suckermouth catfish (English)  15.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;8.80 cm SL female  Type locality: Mountain stream near Santos, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, elev. 400 ft. (Ref. 26282, 6868). Also in Betari River basin, Southeastern Brazil (Ref. 38979). 
Loricariidae Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919) Fr native   7.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality: Poço Grande, Rio Juquia, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Loricariidae Kronichthys subteres Miranda Ribeiro, 1908 Fr native  Mãe-do-anhá (Portuguese), Anhã (Portuguese)   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Betari [Betharí], Rio Pardo, Rio Iporanga, Brazil (Ref. 26282, 6868). 
Rivulidae Kryptolebias brasiliensis (Valenciennes, 1821) Fr endemic  Rívulo (Portuguese)  6.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Kryptolebias campelloi (Costa, 1990) Fr endemic   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Kryptolebias caudomarginatus (Seegers, 1984) Fr endemic    6.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Rivulidae Kryptolebias gracilis Costa, 2007 Fr native   2.76 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Mato Grosso River drainage, Saquarema Lagoon basin in Municipio de Saquarema, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil (Ref. 72398). 
Rivulidae Kryptolebias hermaphroditus Costa, 2011 Fr native    Known only from the coastal plains of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo in southeastern Brazil (Ref. 87200). 
Rivulidae Kryptolebias marmoratus (Poey, 1880) Fr native   7.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Rivulidae Kryptolebias ocellatus (Hensel, 1868) Fr native    6.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Anostomidae Laemolyta fernandezi Myers, 1950 Fr native  Aracu (Portuguese), Casca seca (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese), Piau boca fina (Portuguese), Piau crote (Portuguese), Piau curimatá (Portuguese), Piau de loca (Portuguese)   25.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon basin in rios Xingu, Tocantins and Araguaia (Ref. 80799). 
Anostomidae Laemolyta garmani (Borodin, 1931) Fr native   21.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Laemolyta nitens (Garman, 1890) Fr native     
Anostomidae Laemolyta proxima (Garman, 1890) Fr native  Aracú-caneta (Portuguese)   28.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Guaporé River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Villa Bella and Ueranduba, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Anostomidae Laemolyta taeniata (Kner, 1858) Fr native  Piau-vara (Portuguese), Aracú-caneta (Portuguese), Uaracu biribiri (Portuguese) fairly common (chances are about 50%) 28.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the middle Amazon; common in the Rio Negro (Ref. 598). Also Ref. 36801. 
Anostomidae Laemolyta varia (Garman, 1890) Fr native    Type locality: Gurupa; Jose Fernandez; Lake Hyanuary; Manaos; Obydos; Porto do Moz; and Rio Negro, Brazil. 
Cichlidae Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni & Costa, 2009 Fr native   3.63 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Verde, rio Araguaia basin in central Brazil (Ref. 80972). 
Cichlidae Laetacara curviceps (Ahl, 1923) Fr endemic  Curvicepe (Portuguese)  4.60 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.60 cm female  Found in the lower portions of tributaries of the Amazon River (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Laetacara dorsigera (Heckel, 1840) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese), Acará bobo (Portuguese), Acará pataquira (Portuguese), Cará bobo (Portuguese), Carazinho (Portuguese)   6.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin in the Paraguay River drainage (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Laetacara flamannellus Ottoni, Bragança, Amorim & Gama, 2012 Fr native   3.82 cm SL male/unsexed  Found along eastern coastal rivers of Amapá state, which overflows during the rainy season, originating huge floodplains. The northernmost record is from Igarapé do Davi, in Amapá municipality and the southernmost record is from córrego Areal, in Mazagão municipality (Ref. 91058). 
Cichlidae Laetacara flavilabris (Cope, 1870) Fr native   8.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amzon River basin in the upper Solimöes and Juruá River basins (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Laetacara thayeri (Steindachner, 1875) Fr native    12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found along the Solimões, Amazon (to lower Trombetas River) and lower Negro River basins (Ref. 36377). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion amanapira (Costa, 2004) Fr native    Known from the upper rio Negro drainage, Amazonian basin in northern Brazil (Ref. 52792). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion dibaphus (Myers, 1927) Fr endemic   4.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Museum: Igarapé do Ajamuri, Lower Amazon, CAS 44214 (lectotype of R. dibaphus) (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion geayi (Vaillant, 1899) Fr native   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36579). Also Ref. 27139. 
Rivulidae Laimosemion kirovskyi (Costa, 2004) Fr native   2.27 cm SL male/unsexed ;1.72 cm SL female  Found only in the floodplains of igarapé Acará, lower rio Negro drainage of the rio Amazonas basin in northern Brazil (Ref. 54752). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion romeri (Costa, 2003) Fr native    Type locality, Brook tributary to Igarapé Iauiari, ca. 0°14.31'N, 68°03.48'W, trib. of Uaupés R. which is a trib. of Negro R., Amazon basin, Amazonas, n. Brazil (Ref. 54621). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion strigatus (Regan, 1912) Fr native   6.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Amazon River basin (Ref. 36579). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion uakti (Costa, 2004) Fr native    Known from the upper rio Negro drainage, Amazonian basin in northern Brazil. 
Rivulidae Laimosemion uatuman (Costa, 2004) Fr native    Known from Rio Uatumã drainage, cenral Amazonian basin (Ref. 52555). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion ubim Costa & Lazzarotto, 2014 Fr native   1.81 cm SL male/unsexed ;1.70 cm SL female  Found only in one locality near Igarapé do Ubím, a stream draining into Lago Amanã, Japurá-Solimões drainage system, Rio Amazonoas basin in northern Brazil (Ref. 95522). 
Rivulidae Laimosemion xiphidius (Huber, 1979) Fr native   4.50 cm TL male/unsexed ;3.00 cm TL female   
Loricariidae Lamontichthys avacanoeiro de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza, 2009 Fr native   15.99 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Goiás, rio Tocantins, pools below U.H.E. Serra da Mesa, MNRJ 32795 (holotype of Lamontichthys avacanoeiro, 15.05 cm SL) (Ref. 83332). 
Loricariidae Lamontichthys filamentosus (La Monte, 1935) Fr native  Bode cachimbo (Portuguese), Bode cachoeira (Portuguese)   16.70 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36389). 
Loricariidae Lamontichthys parakana de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza, 2009 Fr native   13.13 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Pará, lower rio Tocantins basin, rio Tocantins, below dam of Tucuruí, INPA 3010 (holotype of Lamontichthys parakana, 11.27 cm SL) (Ref. 83332). 
Loricariidae Lampiella gibbosa (Miranda Ribeiro, 1908) Fr native   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality: Rio Bethary [Betharí], Sao Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Loricariidae Lasiancistrus saetiger Armbruster, 2005 Fr native   10.01 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Pará, rio Guamá near Ourém, MCP 37942 (holotype of Lasiancistrus saetiger, 10.01 cm SL), purchased from an aquarium dealer (Ref. 56920). 
Loricariidae Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther, 1864) Fr native    14.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Madeira and upper Guaporé River basins (Ref. 36713). Also recorded from Aripuanã (Ref. 46237) and Machado River (Ref. 97589). Also Ref. 6868, 56920. 
Lebiasinidae Lebiasina intermedia Meinken, 1936 Fr native   10.70 cm TL male/unsexed   
Lebiasinidae Lebiasina marilynae Netto-Ferreira, 2012 Fr native   8.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from a single collection site in the rio Curuá, rio Xingu basin (Ref. 91748). 
Lebiasinidae Lebiasina melanoguttata Netto-Ferreira, 2012 Fr native   6.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from two tributaries of the rio Curuá (rio Xingu basin) in Serra do Cachimbo (Ref. 91748). 
Lebiasinidae Lebiasina minuta Netto-Ferreira, 2012 Fr native   6.84 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from two tributaries of the rio Curuá (rio Xingu basin) in Serra do Cachimbo (Ref. 91748). 
Lebiasinidae Lebiasina yepezi Netto-Ferreira, Oyakawa, Zuanon & Nolasco, 2011 Fr native   15.29 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Parima (rio Mucajaí system) and rio Uraricoera in the rio Branco drainage, rio Amazonas system, Roraima State; and rio Marari (rio Padauari system) in the rio Negro drainage, rio Amazonas system, Amazonas State (Ref. 88953). 
Pimelodidae Leiarius arekaima (Jardine, 1841) Fr native  Arekaima (Portuguese), Aruá (Portuguese), Jandiá (Portuguese), Jundiá (Portuguese), Yacima (Portuguese)   Known from the Rio Branco. 
Pimelodidae Leiarius longibarbis (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native    Type locality, Amazon River (Ref. 56787). 
Pimelodidae Leiarius marmoratus (Gill, 1870) Fr, Fi native  Jundiá (Portuguese), Jandiá (Portuguese), Mandi bandeira (Portuguese), Mandi de pedra (Portuguese), Peixe pedra (Portuguese)   100.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Quite abundant in São Benedito River (Ref. 54668). Usually found in riverbeds and deep wells, but also occurs in lakes especially the young (Ref. 54668). Young or sub-adults form large schools (Ref. 54668). Prefers to lay over rock and tree trunks during the day, being more active at sunrise, sunset and night (Ref. 54668). 
Pimelodidae Leiarius pictus (Müller & Troschel, 1849) Fr native    60.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Characidae Lepidocharax burnsi Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto, 2011 Fr native   3.99 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the tributaries of the upper rio São Francisco and rio Doce basins (Ref. 87315). 
Characidae Lepidocharax diamantina Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto, 2011 Fr native   3.88 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in rio Paraguaçu basin, an independent costal river system in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil (Ref. 87315). 
Lepidosirenidae Lepidosiren paradoxa Fitzinger, 1837 Fr native  Piracourou-boia (Portuguese), Boi una (Portuguese), Caramuru (Portuguese), Carapaná (Portuguese), Cobra dágua (Portuguese), Loalach (Portuguese), Loloque (Portuguese), Piracuru-bóia (Portuguese), Piramboia (Portuguese), Pirambóia (Portuguese), Pirarucu bóia (Portuguese), Pirarucubóia (Portuguese), Tariíra bóia (Portuguese), Tarira bóia (Portuguese), Tarrira-boia (Portuguese), Tarrira-bóia (Portuguese), Traíra bóia (Portuguese), Trairam bóia (Portuguese)   125 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Marajo I., Tapajoz River, Obidus region, Madeira River, and Negro River (Ref. 12225). Also Ref. 4537, 36887. 
Centrarchidae Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque, 1819 Fr introduced   31.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Centrarchidae Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr introduced    40.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Centrarchidae Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 Fr not established   41.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Loricariidae Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1989 Fr native   21.10 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the southern tributaries of the middle and lower Amazon, Madeira, Tocantins and Guamá rivers (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Leporacanthicus heterodon Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1989 Fr endemic   16.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Xingu River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Loricariidae Leporacanthicus joselimai Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1989 Fr native   9.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Tapajós River basin (Ref. 36713). 
Anostomidae Leporellus cartledgei Fowler, 1941 Fr native  Taguara (Portuguese)    Known from São Francisco basin (Ref. 57478). 
Anostomidae Leporellus pictus (Kner, 1858) Fr native  Charuto (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese), Solteira (Portuguese), Taguara (Portuguese), Timboré (Portuguese)   Known from Paraná and São Francisco River basins (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporellus retropinnis (Eigenmann, 1922) Fr native     Known from Paraná River basin (Ref. 36801). Recorded from Rio Piracicabia (Ref. 598). 
Anostomidae Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes, 1850) Fr native  Piava (Portuguese), Piau rola (Portuguese), Piau-listrado (Portuguese), Solteira (Portuguese), Solteirinha (Portuguese)   30.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076). Also Ref. 598, 36801. 
Anostomidae Leporinus acutidens (Valenciennes, 1837) Fr native  Piava de três pintas (Portuguese)  33.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). Present in the Oyapock River which forms the border between French Guiana and Brazil (Ref. 12225). 
Anostomidae Leporinus affinis Günther, 1864 Fr, Fi, Or native  Piau-flamengo (Portuguese), Araçu flamenco (Portuguese), Aracu flamengo (Portuguese), Aracu pinima (Portuguese), Araçu pinima (Portuguese), Bargado (Portuguese), Camisa de meia (Portuguese), Caninana (Portuguese), Flamenguista (Portuguese), Piau aracu (Portuguese), Rajado (Portuguese)   30.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon basin (Ref. 36801). Reported from Para (Ref. 598). Found in fish markets in Santarém (Ref. 12202). Type locality: Rio Parin. Also Ref. 1672. 
Anostomidae Leporinus agassizii Steindachner, 1876 Fr native  Aracú (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese)   23.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus alternus Eigenmann, 1912 Fr native    Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus amae Godoy, 1980 Fr native  Perna-de-moça (Portuguese), Boca-de-moça (Portuguese), Cara de fogo (Portuguese)  19.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Uruguay River basin (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus amazonicus Santos & Zuanon, 2008 Fr native    25.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Anostomidae Leporinus amblyrhynchus Garavello & Britski, 1987 Fr native  Chimbore (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese)   27.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin (Ref. 36801). Museum: Fazenda Pau d'Alho, Rio Tietê, Itu, Sao Paulo, MZUSP 14411 (holotype of L. amblyrhynchus, 12.5 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Anostomidae Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & dos Santos, 1981 Fr native   9.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Aripuanã River basin (Ref. 36801). Museum: Igarapé do Aeroporto, tributary of Rio Aripuana, Humboldt, Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, MZUSP 14495 (holotype to L. aripuanensis, 9.27 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 46237. 
Anostomidae Leporinus bahiensis Steindachner, 1875 Fr native  Piau (Portuguese)    Recorded from Bahia (Ref. 598). Also Ref. 36801. 
Anostomidae Leporinus bimaculatus Castelnau, 1855 Fr native    Known from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus bistriatus Britski, 1997 Fr native   11.05 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Itacaiunas river, Igarape Aguas Claras, Caldeirao (Ref. 42606). 
Anostomidae Leporinus bleheri Géry, 1999 Fr native   14.20 cm SL male/unsexed   
Anostomidae Leporinus britskii Feitosa, Santos & Birindelli, 2011 Fr native   10.04 cm male/unsexed  Found in rio Teles Pires and rio Jamanxim, rio Tapajós basin, and rio Jari, clearwater tributaries of the lower portion of the Amazon (Ref. 88850). 
Anostomidae Leporinus brunneus Myers, 1950 Fr native  Uaracu piranga (Portuguese)  25.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Negro (Ref. 30270). Also Ref. 36801. 
Anostomidae Leporinus cylindriformis Borodin, 1929 Fr native   19.86 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the lower Amazon River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Porto do Moz (Ref. 26282). Also Ref. 96869. 
Anostomidae Leporinus desmotes Fowler, 1914 Fr native    22.00 cm TL male/unsexed    
Anostomidae Leporinus enyae Burns, Chatfield, Birindelli & Sidlauskas, 2017 Fr native    (southern tributaries of the Orinoco river drainage. including the Ventuari, Known from the upper Negro River and Casiquiare canal, which connects the Negro and Orinoco rivers (Ref. 119688). 
Anostomidae Leporinus falcipinnis Mahnert, Géry & Muller, 1997 Fr endemic    Known from the lower Tapajós River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Rio Arapiuns, 1 hr. by boat downstream of mouth of rio Arua, lower Tapajos basin, Para, Brazil, 2°04'S, 55°38'W (Ref. 26282). 
Anostomidae Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch, 1794) Fr, Fi native  Aracú-flamengo (Portuguese), Aracu amarelo (Portuguese), Aracu flamengo (Portuguese), Aracu pinima (Portuguese), Ferreirinha (Portuguese), Piau flamengo (Portuguese)   37.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) Fr, Fi native  Piapara (Portuguese), Acaru paca (Portuguese), Aracu cabeça gorda (Portuguese), Araçu cabeça gorda (Portuguese), Aracu comum (Portuguese), Piaba (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese), Piau cabeça-gorda (Portuguese), Piau listrado (Portuguese), Piau três pintas (Portuguese), Piava (Portuguese), Uaracu (Portuguese) scarce (very unlikely) 40.00 cm SL male/unsexed 13.1 TL Recorded from the Caracu and Sao Pedro streams, both tributaries of the Paraná river (Ref. 26076), Pircacicaba river (Ref. 50076) and Machado river (Ref. 97589). Also Ref. 31923. 
Anostomidae Leporinus geminis Garavello & Santos, 2009 Fr native   18.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the Rio Tocantins (Ref. 80692). 
Anostomidae Leporinus gomesi Garavello & Santos, 1981 Fr native   16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Aripuanã River basin (Ref. 36801). Museum: Rio Aripuana above the Cachoeira de Dardanelos, Humboldt, Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, MZUSP 14436 (holotype of L. gomesi, 15 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 46237. 
Anostomidae Leporinus guttatus Birindelli & Britski, 2009 Fr native   12.47 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in the upper rio Curuá (above the great falls of Serra do Cachimbo), a tributary of the rio Iriri, rio Xingu in Pará State. Its absence below the waterfalls suggests that this species might be restricted to the river portion isolated above the falls (Ref. 80699). 
Anostomidae Leporinus jamesi Garman, 1929 Fr native    15.49 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the rio Amazonas, rio Solimões, rio Madeira and lower portion of their tributaries at the central Amazonian region (Ref. 96869). Also Ref. 36801. 
Anostomidae Leporinus klausewitzi Géry, 1960 Fr native    Known from central Amazon River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Mundurucú, Rio Manacapuru, Amazon basin, near Manaos, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Anostomidae Leporinus lacustris Amaral Campos, 1945 Fr, Fi native  Piava de lagoa (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese)   24.00 cm TL male/unsexed 8.4 TL Known from Paraná River basin (Ref. 36801). Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). Museum: Pirassununga, Estado de Sao Paulo, MZUSP 3458 (holotype of L . Lacustris, 11.1 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 598. 
Anostomidae Leporinus leschenaulti Valenciennes, 1850 Fr native    Known from coastal rivers in northern Brazil (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel, 1844 Fr, Thr native  Araçu pinima (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese), Timboré pichó (Portuguese), Ximburé (Portuguese)   18.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;20.00 cm TL female  Known from São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36801). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). 
Anostomidae Leporinus marcgravii Lütken, 1875 Fr native  Piau (Portuguese), Timboré (Portuguese)  11.85 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from São Francisco River basin (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus melanopleura Günther, 1864 Fr, Thr native  Piau (Portuguese), Piau de coco (Portuguese)    Known from Cipó River basin in Bahia (Ref. 36801). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Also Ref. 598. 
Anostomidae Leporinus melanopleurodes Birindelli, Britski & Garavello, 2013 Fr native   12.87 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in rio das Almas and rio Jiquiriçá, two small coastal river in southern Bahia (Ref. 93224). 
Anostomidae Leporinus melanostictus Norman, 1926 Fr native  Araçu (Portuguese)  28.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Present in the Oyapock River which forms the border between Brazil and French Guiana (Ref. 12225). Also Ref. 36801. 
Anostomidae Leporinus microphthalmus Garavello, 1989 Fr, Thr native    11.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Paraná River basin (Ref. 36801). Regarded as threatened in the state of Minas Gerais (Ref. 26603). Museum: Rio Araguari, salto de Nova Ponte, Nova Ponte, Estado de Minas Gerais, MZUSP 38535 (holotype of L. microphthalmus, 8.7 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Anostomidae Leporinus moralesi Fowler, 1942 Fr native  Aracu autã (Portuguese)  30.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus multimaculatus Birindelli, Teixeira & Britski, 2016 Fr native   11.06 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the small tributaries at the rio Araguaia, rioTocantins and rio Xingu basins in Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará and Tocantins states; rio Jari basin and coastal drainages of Amapá state (Ref. 117595). Status of threat: Least Concern (LC) (Ref. 117595). 
Anostomidae Leporinus nattereri Steindachner, 1876 Fr native    Known from Negro River, Aleixo Lake, central Amazon basin (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus nigrotaeniatus (Jardine, 1841) Fr native  Biri biri (Portuguese), Uaracu murutinga (Portuguese)  40.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Negro River basin (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus nijsseni Garavello, 1990 Fr native   17.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Present in the Oyapock River which forms th border between Brazil and French Guiana (Ref. 12225). Also Ref. 36801. 
Anostomidae Leporinus octofasciatus Steindachner, 1915 Fr native  Ferreirinha (Portuguese), Piau listrado (Portuguese), Piava (Portuguese), Salmo ferreiro (Portuguese)   31.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the northern Cubatão River in Santa Catarina and upper Paraná River basin (Ref. 36801). Also Ref. 598. 
Anostomidae Leporinus octomaculatus Britski & Garavello, 1993 Fr native   12.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Arinos River basin in Tapajós River drainage (Ref. 36801). Museum: MZUSP 44794 (holotype of L. octomaculatus, 6.85 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Anostomidae Leporinus ortomaculatus Garavello, 2000 Fr native   7.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Negro River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus pachyurus Valenciennes, 1850 Fr native    Occurs in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus parae Eigenmann, 1907 Fr native    22.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the river basins of Pará, lower Amazon (Ref. 36801) and Acre (Ref. 97592). 
Anostomidae Leporinus paralternus Fowler, 1914 Fr native    Known from the Amazon River (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus paranensis Garavello & Britski, 1987 Fr, Fi native    16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Paraná River basin (Ref. 36801). Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076). Museum: Marimbondo, Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, MZUSP 14453 (holotype of L. paranensis, 15.4 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Anostomidae Leporinus parvulus Birindelli, Britski & Lima, 2013 Fr native   7.68 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in two sites in the the Rio Tapajós, Pederneiras and São Luiz, which are immediately below and a few kilometers upriver of the city of Itaituba in Pará (Ref. 93868). 
Anostomidae Leporinus pellegrinii Steindachner, 1910 Fr native   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Amazon (Ref. 598, 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus piau Fowler, 1941 Fr native  Piau (Portuguese), Piau gordura (Portuguese), Piau verdadeiro (Portuguese)   33.02 cm FL male/unsexed  Known from Salgado, Ceará (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus pitingai Santos & Jégu, 1996 Fr native   31.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Pitinga River, Amazonas (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Rio Pitinga, Cachoeira 40 Ilhas, Amazonas (Ref. 42606). 
Anostomidae Leporinus reticulatus Britski & Garavello, 1993 Fr native   13.59 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Arinos and Tapajós River basins (Ref. 36801). Museum: headwaters of the Rio Arinos, Rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 44781 (holotype of L. reticulatus, 6.62 cm SL ) (Ref. 26282, 27925). 
Anostomidae Leporinus santosi Britski & Birindelli, 2013 Fr native   13.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in a tributary of the rio Tocantins, at the stretch now inundated by the Tucuruí reservoir, and a tributary of the rio Itacaiúnas, a large tributary of the lower rio Tocantins (Ref. 93223). 
Anostomidae Leporinus sexstriatus Britski & Garavello, 1980 Fr native   8.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Papagaio and Tapajós River basins (Ref. 36801). Museum: Rio Papagaio, acima de Salto de Utiariti, Mato Grosso, MZUSP 9232 (holotype of L. sexstriatus, 7 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). 
Anostomidae Leporinus spilopleura Norman, 1926 Fr native   26.50 cm SL male/unsexed   
Anostomidae Leporinus striatus Kner, 1858 Fr, Fi native  Canivete (Portuguese), Ferreirinha (Portuguese), Piau (Portuguese), Piava (Portuguese), Riscadinho (Portuguese), Tanchina (Portuguese), Taxina (Portuguese)   25.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Piracicaba river (Ref. 50076) and Uruguay River (Ref. 79585). Also Ref. 598. 
Anostomidae Leporinus taeniatus Lütken, 1875 Fr native  Piau (Portuguese), Piau jejo (Portuguese), Piau jeju (Portuguese), Timburé (Portuguese)   19.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Das Velhas and São Francisco River basins (Ref. 36801). Type locality : Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Ref. 26282). 
Anostomidae Leporinus taeniofasciatus Britski, 1997 Fr native   12.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Maranhao river, Barro Alto and Niquelandia (Ref. 42606). 
Anostomidae Leporinus tigrinus Borodin, 1929 Fr native    20.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Tocantins River basin (Ref. 36801). 
Anostomidae Leporinus torrenticola Birindelli, Teixeira & Britski, 2016 Fr native   12.32 cm SL male/unsexed  Occurs in the rapids of the middle rio Xingu and its main tributaries, the rio Iriri and rio Curuá in Pará state. The construction of hydroelectiirc dam Belo Monte modified part of the rapids of the rio Xingu. The impacts of this dam to the population of Leporinus torrenticola need to be assessed (Ref. 117595). Status of threat: Data Deficient (DD) (Ref. 117595). 
Anostomidae Leporinus trimaculatus Garavello & Santos, 1992 Fr native   23.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Aripuanã River basin (Ref. 36801). Museum: Rio Aripuana, Humboldt, Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, Amazonia, MZUSP 14459 (holotype of L. trimaculatus, 19.5 cm SL) (Ref. 27925). Also Ref. 46237. 
Anostomidae Leporinus uatumaensis Santos & Jégu, 1996 Fr native   10.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Uatumã River basin (Ref. 36801). Type locality: Rio Uatumã, Cachoeira do Miriti, abaixo da cachoeira Balbina, Amazonas (Ref. 42606). 
Anostomidae Leporinus unitaeniatus Garavello & Santos, 2009 Fr native   12.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers (Ref. 80692). 
Anostomidae Leporinus vanzoi Britski & Garavello, 2005 Fr native    Known from the Rio Araguaia (Ref. 75002). 
Anostomidae Leporinus venerei Britski & Birindelli, 2008 Fr native   13.55 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the rio Araguaia basin in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, central Brazil (Ref. 75002).