Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Smith.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 150 m (Ref. 4369), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 10°N - 28°S
Western Indian Ocean: Natal, South Africa to the Seychelles and Sri Lanka, possibly more widespread. Has previously been synonymized with Lethrinus mahsena which is now regarded as a separate species.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4369)
Solitarily found in coastal waters trawling grounds and coral reef areas (Ref. 2295, 90102). Marketed fresh (Ref. 171).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 28.8, mean 27.1 °C (based on 256 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00693 - 0.03157), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 36.5 [25.6, 52.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.763 [0.546, 1.072] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [18.1, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.133 [0.100, 0.177] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.8 [33.6, 74.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 23 [6, 128] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.95 [1.41, 2.58] mg/100g (wet weight);