Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; catadromous (Ref. 46888). Tropical; 23°N - 33°S, 25°E - 136°W
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa south to Algoa Bay, South Africa (Ref. 4393), Madagascar, northern Australia (Timor Sea), New Guinea and Tonga. Reported from the Marquesas (Ref. 12792). Africa: Inland waters - Zambezi
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
Adults inhabit coastal waters, estuaries; sometimes ascending rivers into fresh water (Ref. 9812). They prefer slow moving waters or still lagoons (Ref. 9812). Often found in turbid water, over muddy substrates, and with well-substantiated aquatic vegetation (Ref. 9812). They feed on microalgae, detritus, terrestrial plant material, and aquatic insects (Ref. 9812). Perhaps catadromous (Ref. 9812). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J. and H. Senou, 1997. Order Mugiliformes. Mugilidae. Mullets. p. 2069-2108. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9812)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.7 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 808 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00810 - 0.02146), b=2.92 (2.79 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.16 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).