Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Cestraeus: Greek, kestra = a kind of shark; Greek, kestros = sharpened, 1876 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Macleay.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range - 2 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 5°N - 23°S
Asia and Oceania: Philippines south to New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabit rapid-flowing streams in hilly or mountainous terrain (Ref. 2847). Adults may ascend rivers, reported to 350 m above sea level. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J. and H. Senou, 1997. Order Mugiliformes. Mugilidae. Mullets. p. 2069-2108. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9812)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00545 - 0.02418), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .