Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Protonibea: Greek, protos = the first + see under Nibea. More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 5 - 100 m (Ref. 43239). Tropical; 40°N - 28°S, 47°E - 154°E
Indo-West Pacific: west coast of the Persian Gulf and along the coasts of India and Sri Lanka, north to Japan and south through the Philippines and Borneo to New Guinea and northern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 85 - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); common length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 72458)
Found in coastal waters over muddy bottoms, off the sea-bed. Ascend tidal rivers and estuaries (Ref. 9772). Feed mainly on crustaceans and small fishes. Also caught with bottom trawls (Ref. 9772). Sold fresh and dried salted (swim bladder) in markets. An important food fish. Minimum depth range based on occurrence (Ref. 118911).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lal Mohan, R.S., 1984. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3490)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1838 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00415 - 0.01592), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.29-0.52; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 47.2 [17.2, 196.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.732 [0.292, 1.896] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.0, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.384 [0.189, 0.788] g/100g ; Selenium = 109 [52, 240] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.7 [2.3, 49.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.89 [0.46, 1.93] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.