Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Zebrias: Derived from Zebra = African horse, referring to the stripes (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 40 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand to southern Japan, Philippines (Ref. 9494), Borneo and Indonesia. Absent from New Guinea and Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9893); max. published weight: 168.50 g (Ref. 124479)
Inhabits shallow sand and mud bottoms of coastal waters. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates, especially small crustaceans. Marketed fresh, frozen, and dried-salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 2001. Soleidae. Soles. p. 3878-3889. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9893)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.3 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 882 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00481 - 0.01252), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .