Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Heteromycteris: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, mykter, -eros = nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Chabanaud.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 5 - 37 m (Ref. 5304). Tropical; 21°N -
Southeast Atlantic: Mauritania to south of Angola (Ref. 5304).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27121)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 72 - 74. Diagnosis: flat and asymmetric body; eyes located on right side of head, except in reversed individuals; preopercle covered by skin and opercle entirely scaled; mouth small, more or less arched and inferior; dorsal and anal fins lacking spinous rays and separated from caudal fin; dorsal fin originating on upper edge of mouth; pectoral fins absent; pelvic fins asymmetrical, the one on eyed side united to anal fin; lateral line straight along each side; body covered with ctenoid scales (Ref. 57416).
A marine species also occurring in brackish waters and recorded from water practically free of salt in Cameroon (Ref. 6805).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.2 - 27.9, mean 26.6 °C (based on 46 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00456 - 0.02095), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 447 [193, 1,056] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.45 [0.73, 2.82] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.5, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.34 [0.14, 0.85] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.8 [16.1, 107.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.5 [7.4, 103.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.76 [1.07, 2.84] mg/100g (wet weight);