Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Norman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 35 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 16°N - 17°S, 19°W - 13°E (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Guinea to Angola.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6497); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Benthic and more or less stationary in inshore coastal waters. Feeds on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587). Ovoviviparous. Females have litters of 2-3 pups. Males mature at ca. 46 cm TL, females at ca. 52 cm TL; birth size at ca. 15 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Stehmann, M., 1990. Rhinobatidae. p. 23-27. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 6497)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.8 - 28, mean 27.3 °C (based on 205 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00153 - 0.00597), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.71 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 106 [19, 341] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.826 [0.242, 2.611] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.1, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.383 [0.159, 0.918] g/100g ; Selenium = 56.3 [11.4, 167.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.9 [7.6, 47.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.06 [0.51, 2.65] mg/100g (wet weight);