Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 100 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: India east to Indochina, then north to Japan and China to the Philippines, Indonesia and Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636)
(total): 4 - 5;
spines: 13. Indonesian form has pale body with dark blotches (Ref. 48636). Body dark brown with 3 distinct broad black bands. Respiratory valve inside lower jaw with a thick orange tentacle (Ref 42788).
Found above 100 m on sandy gravel bottom (Ref. 11230). Lives on muddy substrates and rarely observed (Ref. 48636). Hides in sandy bottoms and sucks up animals with sand and debris into the mouth.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 1308 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00176 - 0.01132), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .