Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Chlorurus: Greek, chloros = green + Greek oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 50 m (Ref. 5213), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 33°S, 30°E - 130°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
soft rays: 9. Initial phase very variable in coloration. Small individuals may be uniformly dark brown to light gray with or without the dark-centered light area on the caudal peduncle; large individuals may have a series of irregular rows of small light spots posteriorly or have the dark-centered light area on the caudal peduncle. The terminal phase is also variable with or without a large tan area on the side or on the caudal peduncle. Rounded snout (Ref. 48636).
One of the most widespread parrotfishes, but highly variable and some geographical forms that are probably subspecific (Ref. 48636). Inhabit both coral rich (Ref. 58652) and open pavement areas of shallow reef flats and lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 5213), as well as drop-offs, behaving differently in various areas (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles found in coral rubble areas of reef flats and lagoons (Ref. 9710). Juveniles and individuals in the initial phase form large groups that migrate great distances between feeding and sleeping grounds (Ref. 9710). Feed on benthic algae (Ref. 30573). Minimum depth range reported taken from Ref. 30874. Protogynous (Ref. 55080). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Size at sex change: 35.1 - 47.2 cm TL (Ref. 55080).
Eschmeyer, W.N., 1997. PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database as published on the Internet in June 1997, URL: gopher://gopher.calacademy.org:640/7. (Ref. 12965)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 582 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.01308 - 0.01921), b=3.05 (3.00 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=9; k >0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 56.5 [20.2, 149.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.899 [0.345, 2.514] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.213 [0.087, 0.527] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.6 [14.0, 125.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.6 [6.8, 90.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.86 [1.17, 5.40] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.