Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 100 - 250 m (Ref. 104863), usually 100 - 250 m (Ref. 27000). Tropical; 18°N - 18°S, 26°W - 14°E
Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde and off Senegal. Possibly occurs as far south as Angola, but records south of Senegal need to be verified.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111105); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5476)
Neritic over the continental shelf. (Ref. 3594).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 12.4 - 15.8, mean 14.3 °C (based on 19 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00803 - 0.02372), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 138 [78, 263] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.53 [0.15, 2.34] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.2, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.447 [0.203, 1.053] g/100g ; Selenium = 43 [21, 82] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24 [7, 68] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.654 [0.262, 2.517] mg/100g (wet weight);