Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Plagioscion: Greek, plagios = oblique + Greek, skiaina, skion = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Heckel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 27°C (Ref. 12468)
South America: Amazon, Orinoco, Paraná, Paraguay, and São Francisco River basins and rivers fo Guianas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36888); max. published weight: 4.5 kg (Ref. 40637)
Occupies very diverse biotopes and carries out its biological cycle in freshwater as well as in brackish water (Ref. 27188). Juveniles feed on larvae of crustaceans (especially Macrobrachium), aquatic insects and copepods. Adults prey on fish. Captured during the rainy season (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Casatti, L., 2003. Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers). p. 599-602. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36888)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00810 - 0.00981), b=3.08 (3.05 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.22; tm=1-1.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 66.1 [32.0, 139.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.859 [0.503, 1.501] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.9, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.297 [0.110, 0.707] g/100g ; Selenium = 60.4 [26.0, 152.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 106 [33, 355] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.79, 2.04] mg/100g (wet weight);