Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Diplodus: Greek, diploos = twice + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 30 - 300 m (Ref. 3688). Subtropical; 47°N - 35°S, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean to the Strait of Gibraltar and South Africa including Madeira and the Canary islands, but absent from Cape Verde, off Senegal and the Gulf of Guinea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2715); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2715); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 40637)
Benthopelagic on the shelf, on rocky bottoms from 30 to 80 m depth, but may also occur down to 300 m on muddy bottoms. Forms schools of 4 or 5 individuals of different sizes. Omnivorous, feeds on small invertebrates and seaweeds (Ref. 4781).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 17.9, mean 14.9 °C (based on 141 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00725 - 0.01904), b=3.09 (2.96 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.4 [12.2, 45.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.757 [0.416, 1.389] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [19.3, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.171 [0.092, 0.333] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.2 [9.0, 32.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34.8 [9.5, 109.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.87 [0.52, 1.36] mg/100g (wet weight);