Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Craterocephalinae
Etymology: Craterocephalus: Greek, krater, -eros = bowl, mixing vessel + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335). More on author: Whitley.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 24°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060)
Oceania: endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 5.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinguished from Craterocephalus marianae and Craterocephalus munroi
and all other members of the genus by a combination of the following: head 3.0-3.4 (3.1); greatest body depth 3.6-4.7 (4.1); least body depth 8.8-11.0 00.0); origin of pectoral fin to anus 2.7-3.1 (2.9), all in SL. Dorsal process of premaxilla 1.1-1.70.4 in eye. Midlateral scale count 28-30 (29.1); transverse scale count 5.5-6.5 (6.0); vertebral count 30-32 (31.4). Position of anus in relation to tip of pelvic fin from 0.5 scales in front to 2 scales behind tip of pelvic fin. Differs osteologically from all other Craterocephalus species by a combination of the following: shape of anterior medial process of maxilla; lack of interdorsal pterygiophores (but shared with some other members of C. eyresii group); minute anterior process usually present on cleithrum; dorsal process of cleithrum also present; basisphenoid short and thick. Differs genetically from Craterocephalus marianae at the following loci: ADA, CK, FDP, GPI-l,MPI, PGM and from C. munroi at CK, FDP, GLDH, GPI-l, MPI, PGM. Unique at GPI-lf (Ref. 26703).
Lives in clear flowing streams where it is common along the vegetated margin. Generally in shallow water over sandy or gravelly substrates. A shoal-forming species. Capable of multiple spawnings between September and January (with peak activity early in the season). It has reproduced in captivity (Ref. 44894). Feeds mostly on aquatic insects and their larvae, micro-crustaceans, algae and fish eggs (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .