Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Diplodus: Greek, diploos = twice + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 90 m (Ref. 4781). Subtropical; 49°N - 27°N, 19°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Canary islands, also found along the coast of Portugal northward to the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov (Ref. 4781).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.2, range 8 - 19.6 cm
Max length : 27.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115876); common length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 330.00 g (Ref. 115876); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 26328)
Inhabit chiefly Zostera seagrass beds but also found on Posidonia beds and sandy bottoms, rarely on rocky bottoms. Carnivorous, feed on worms, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms and hydrozoans. The sexes are separated, although these fish are potential hermaphrodites; certain individuals are protandric (Ref. 4781).
Normally sexes are separate but some individuals are protandrous due to geographical variation in sexual pattern (Ref. 103751). However, histological studies confirm no degenerating functional tissue of one sex (e.g. vitellogenic or later-stage follicles) and no proliferation of tissue of the other sex can be found on this species indicating the absence of sex change. This particular condition is also known as nonfunctional hermaphroditism previously known as rudimentary hermaphroditism (Ref. 91314). Also Ref. 28504.
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.8 - 21.1, mean 18.3 °C (based on 220 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.01092 - 0.01324), b=3.07 (3.05 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.2 (2.8 - 6.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 20 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.2-0.5; tmax=7; Fecundity=18,000 - 212,000).
Prior r = 0.75, 95% CL = 0.50 - 1.13, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 147 [74, 295] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.57 [0.89, 2.97] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.3, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.695 [0.309, 1.636] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.5 [9.3, 55.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 23.7 [6.9, 77.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.34 [0.81, 2.04] mg/100g (wet weight);