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Engraulis australis (White, 1790)

Australian anchovy
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
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Engraulis australis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Engraulis australis (Australian anchovy)
Engraulis australis
Picture by Smith, B.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Engraulis: Greek, eggraulis, -eos = anchovy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 31 - 70 m (Ref. 58489). Subtropical; 20°S - 47°S, 109°E - 177°W (Ref. 189)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southwest Pacific: Australia (from Queensland at about Cape Capricorn south to southern Tasmania; entire southern coast of Australia, except for Great Australian Bight, and north to Shark Bay, Western Australia), including Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island; and New Zealand (most of the North Island and all but the southeast coast of the South Island).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 6.5, range 6 - 7 cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33832); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9822); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 6390)

Short description Identification keys | Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 18; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 17 - 19; Vertebrae: 40 - 48. Hardly differs from the European anchovy (E. encrasicolus) and can be identified from that description. For most of its range it is the only anchovy present, but in the extreme north it may overlap with species of Encrasicholina or Stolephorus, which have small needle-like scutes before the pelvic fins; species of Thryssa have compressed bodies and a keel of scutes along the belly.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found mostly inshore: chiefly in bays, inlets and estuaries, sometimes in low salinities. Older individuals tend to move out to sea in winter and back in the spring. Forms compact schools much preyed upon by larger fishes, common dolphins and birds. Feeds on plankton. Spawns in inlets, bays and also estuaries, probably throughout the year but mainly in late spring to early autumn and especially about November to February. The eggs are ellipsoidal. Utilized as fish paste.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduction | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larvae

Spawns in inlets, bays and estuaries.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 July 2018


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Trophic ecology
Food items
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Population dynamics
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Mass conversions
Life cycle
Spawning aggregations
Egg developments
Larval dynamics
FAO areas
BRUVS - Videos
Gill areas
Body compositions
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Fish sounds
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Human related
Aquaculture systems
Aquaculture profiles
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 14.3 - 24, mean 17.1 °C (based on 72 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00213 - 0.00980), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.39; tm=1; tmax=6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 213 [100, 489] mg/100g; Iron = 1.3 [0.6, 3.0] mg/100g; Protein = 18.7 [17.5, 19.9] %; Omega3 = 0.838 [0.500, 1.399] g/100g; Selenium = 12.4 [5.6, 24.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 19.9 [5.6, 69.1] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.47 [0.94, 2.25] mg/100g (wet weight);