Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical
Indian Ocean: Red Sea to Bombay, India. Mediterranean Sea: reported from the eastern basins from several country (Ref. 57855), in need of confirmation in some cases. Western Pacific Reported from Japan and the coast of China (Ref. 559), but other occurrences need confirmation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108876); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. published weight: 145.10 g (Ref. 108876)
Occur mainly in marine coastal waters. Also found in inlet waters and estuaries of rivers (Ref. 559). Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, J.M., 1984. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2830)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 19.4 - 29.2, mean 26.1 °C (based on 388 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00600 - 0.01591), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 2.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 310 [126, 685] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.41 [1.36, 4.61] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [15.6, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.734 [0.315, 1.767] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.1 [17.2, 95.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.8 [4.3, 76.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.68 [1.68, 4.35] mg/100g (wet weight);