Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous; depth range 1 - 10 m (Ref. 9812), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 10°S - 44°S
Southwest Pacific: Australia including the Lord Howe and Norfolk islands. Probably also the southern extreme of Queensland (Ref. 9812).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 9. Dark olive-green or reddish brown dorsally, greenish wash on upper flanks, lower flanks silvery (Ref. 9812). Gold blotch on operculum (Ref. 9812). Golden-yellow iris around dark eye (Ref. 9812). Fins greenish brown, except anal fin with white margin (Ref. 9812). Black spot at base of pectoral fin (Ref. 9812).
Form schools in shallow coastal waters and lower estuaries. Found in freshwater during its first year, seldom thereafter (Ref. 9812). Spawn near estuary mouths or in the sea (Ref. 9812). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Feed on small crustaceans and mollusks as well as microscopic algae (Ref. 2109). Marketed fresh or filleted (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Francis, M.P., 1993. Checklist of the coastal fishes of Lord Howe, Norfolk, and Kermadec Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Pac. Sci. 47(2):136-170. (Ref. 8879)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.1 - 23.3, mean 21.2 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00545 - 0.02418), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 85.7 [33.6, 195.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.624 [0.340, 1.204] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.5, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 1.63 [0.69, 3.86] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.3 [7.8, 56.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.67 [1.63, 28.33] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.843 [0.554, 1.415] mg/100g (wet weight);