Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Craterocephalinae
Etymology: Craterocephalus: Greek, krater, -eros = bowl, mixing vessel + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 26°S - 27°S
Oceania: restricted to the Dalhousie Springs, South Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6398)
Inhabits warm water artesian springs and their outlet streams (Ref. 2906, 44894). Tolerates temperatures ranging from 20°-39°C, but has been recorded briefly entering water of 41.8°C to feed. A diurnally-active species which has one of the highest recorded voluntary temperature tolerances of any fish species in the world (Ref. 44894). Feeds on gastropods, aquatic plants (Ref. 2906), green filamentous algae, detritus and small invertebrates which are taken from the bottom (Ref. 44894). Dimorphic: bigger females with concave head and flat belly, long cylindrical sac-like ovary on left side of fish while the yellow-white testis lies on the right side. Appears to suffer thermal stress above 38°C but can tolerate low oxygen levels (Ref. 7276).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .