Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Seale.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 20 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 36°N - 31°S, 30°E - 146°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to New Caledonia and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan. Reported from Fiji and Tuvalu (Ref. 12596).The exact range is uncertain because of confusion of this species with Sphyraena jello and Sphyraena qenie (Ref. 9768).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768)
soft rays: 7 - 9. Many typical chevron dark markings crossing lateral line on body; caudal fin largely blackish. No gill rakers on first arch, upper and lower gill arch with rough platelets, each platelet not bearing distinct spine.
Found near prominent current-swept lagoons or seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Also in bays and inner turbid lagoons (Ref. 9768). Nocturnally active, but occurring in relatively large schools during the day (Ref. 9768). Sold fresh or processed into fish cakes (Ref. 27550).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3674 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00464 - 0.01241), b=2.92 (2.78 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 22.7 [9.9, 53.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.336 [0.164, 1.218] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.7 [18.9, 22.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.103 [0.049, 0.217] g/100g ; Selenium = 46 [17, 104] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.2 [5.6, 121.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.515 [0.321, 0.928] mg/100g (wet weight);