Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 15 - 135 m (Ref. 27363), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Southwest Atlantic: Espírito Santo, Brazil (Ref. 57756) to northern Argentina.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116029)
soft rays: 7. Third spine of dorsal fin filamentous. Body light brownish dorsally, silvery ventrally. Two dark purplish broad bands on body; anterior band running from anterior part of spinous dorsal base to belly, posterior band from anterior part of soft dorsal base to posterior anal fin base. Two indistinct broad bands present posteriorly on head and caudal peduncle. Each fin pale brownish; tips of pelvic and anal fins and lower part of caudal fin slightly blackish (Ref. 27363).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Figueiredo, J.L. and N.A. Menezes, 1980. Manual de peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. III. Teleostei (2). Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Brasil. 90 p. (Ref. 9050)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.5 - 21.7, mean 13.2 °C (based on 137 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00903 - 0.01331), b=3.07 (3.02 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 1.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 157 [80, 309] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.28 [0.70, 2.33] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.4, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.425 [0.231, 0.735] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.3 [12.2, 52.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.9 [8.9, 98.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.11 [0.73, 1.77] mg/100g (wet weight);