Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Found on coral slopes (Ref. 9710) Juveniles in large groups at base of reef, sometimes with H. diphreutes; adults usually solitary or paired, occasionally in groups (Ref. 9710). Feed on zooplankton and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.4, mean 27 °C (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01117 - 0.04486), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 93.6 [55.7, 158.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.775 [0.509, 1.312] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [18.1, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.147 [0.093, 0.231] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.2 [16.1, 55.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.4 [16.4, 154.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.3 [0.9, 1.9] mg/100g (wet weight);