Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 25 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 33°N - 34°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: southern Florida (USA), Bahamas, and Yucatan, Mexico to Brazil; including the Gulf of Mexico and the entire Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798)
soft rays: 8. Pale gray above; belly darker gray. Yellow stripes along side; bronze-yellow stripes and spots on head (Ref. 26938). Snout and fins primarily brownish (Ref. 13442).
Occurs in clear rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 5217) and mangroves (Ref. 26340). Often forming schools (Ref. 3798). Nocturnal feeder on crabs, gastropods, starfish and annelid worms (Ref. 5521). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.3 - 28.2, mean 27.5 °C (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00906 - 0.02903), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27.7 [9.4, 68.4] mg/100g; Iron = 0.569 [0.282, 1.083] mg/100g; Protein = 20.1 [18.2, 21.9] %; Omega3 = 0.2 [0.1, 0.4] g/100g; Selenium = 12.1 [5.9, 24.5] μg/100g; VitaminA = 55.8 [20.2, 164.9] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.784 [0.496, 1.273] mg/100g (wet weight);