Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 128 m (Ref. 26938), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 43°N - 7°N
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26340) to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626)
Red to dusky red with a round black spot beneath rear of second dorsal fin and a broad blackish saddle-like bar on caudal peduncle.
Commonly found along sea walls and pilings, in harbors, and coral reefs. A nocturnal species, it remains hidden in cracks and crevices during the day (Ref. 9626). Reaches depths of more than 100 m (Ref. 9626). Males with eggs have been spotted in Bahamas in June and July (Ref. 26938). Most common cardinalfish in the aquarium trade.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Spawning may occur throughout the year (Ref. 39366). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26 °C (based on 414 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00577 - 0.01900), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 113 [65, 243] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.70, 1.68] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.1, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.184 [0.113, 0.297] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.1 [15.7, 55.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 128 [51, 319] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [1.0, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight);