Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Scorpaenoidei
(Scorpionfishes) > Congiopodidae
(Racehorses or pigfishes) > Zanclorhynchinae
Etymology: Zanclorhynchus: Greek, za = an aumentative particle + Greek, agkilo = hook + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335); spinifer: Named for its type locality, Ridge of Hercules. More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 1000 m (Ref. 87547), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 45°S - 55°S
Southern Ocean: Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, and Macquarie islands and the Kara-Dag Seamount north-east of the Prince Edward Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5195)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10 - 12;
Vertebrae: 34 - 35. This subspecies differs from the nominative subspecies in the degree of development of the arming, particularly, by the cranial spines and of the dorsal fin: arming of fish strong, index of arming (Iar) is more than 13.2; length of first spine D1 7.4-14.7% SL; head length 36.4-39% SL; antedorsal distance 33.7-38.7% SL; length of first spine D1 0.7-1.1 of eye diameter, which is 7.7-11.2% SL; the sum of heights of second, third, and fourth spines D1 exceeds length of second temporal spine by no more than 7.1 times. This subspecies differs from (Ref. 118198).
Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates, primarily amphipods.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and G. Duhamel, 1990. Congiopodidae. p. 229-230. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5195)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.3 - 2.9, mean 2.2 °C (based on 17 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7520 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44.3 [23.3, 97.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.314 [0.205, 0.547] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [14.4, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.808 [0.382, 2.061] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.8 [11.2, 46.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.9 [4.9, 32.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.601 [0.440, 0.860] mg/100g (wet weight);