Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Temperate; 52°N - 41°N, 72°W - 47°W
Northwest Atlantic: northern Newfoundland (Strait of Belle Isle) in Canada to southern Massachusetts in USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Found among algae on rocky shores and on hard bottom in deeper water, or depth of 55 meters or more (Ref. 51666). Male guards multiple egg masses (Ref. 58332).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are laid in several clumps or masses which are guarded by the male parent (Ref. 58332).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.5 - 11.7, mean 6.4 °C (based on 72 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00407 (0.00171 - 0.00969), b=3.11 (2.90 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19-0.22; tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 62.2 [31.7, 120.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.235 [0.139, 0.445] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [17.2, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.515 [0.269, 1.000] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.8 [5.5, 29.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 66.3 [19.3, 217.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.79 [0.52, 1.20] mg/100g (wet weight);