Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range ? - 700 m (Ref. 35388), usually 150 - 400 m (Ref. 26999). Deep-water; 60°N - 23°S, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: north of British Isles and North Sea to Walvis Bay, Namibia, including Madeira and the Mediterranean (excluding the Black Sea).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4697); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 7008)
Found on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 27121). Feeds on shrimps and crabs (Ref. 27637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Richards, W.J. and V.P. Saksena, 1990. Triglidae. p. 680-684. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3687)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.5 - 14.9, mean 13.1 °C (based on 252 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00701 - 0.01033), b=2.99 (2.93 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.21; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .