Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Istiophoridae
Etymology: Tetrapturus: Greek, tetra = four + Greek, pteron, fin, wing (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 43). Subtropical; 42°N - 29°S, 98°W - 18°E (Ref. 43)
Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea: Positively known only from Madeira, Sicily (Italy), Strait of Gibraltar, and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean off southern Portugal. Can be expected to range widely in the eastern and perhaps central North Atlantic. Central and eastern Atlantic records from Japanese longliner's data need clarification. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 184 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 43); 181.0 cm FL (female); max. published weight: 21.5 kg (Ref. 43); max. published weight: 21.5 kg
Further study is strongly needed to clarify the validity of this species. Probably oceanic. Length has been transferred from 'Body length' to FL (* 0.15).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakamura, I., 1985. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 5. Billfishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(5):65p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 43)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.3 - 19.1, mean 17.1 °C (based on 37 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5630 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00196 - 0.01020), b=3.13 (2.93 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .