Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 10 - ?. Tropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060)
Africa: Nile basin (Ref. 28714, 58460), Chad (Ref. 367, 57417), Senegal, Gambia, Geba, Volta River basins (Ref. 57417). Also found in Lake Turkana in Kenya (Ref. 52331).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2829); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 3799); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 126183)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 2 - 3;
soft rays: 7 - 8. Diagnosis: skin scaleless, but head and body covered with small spines except on snout and caudal region; teeth form beak-like structure consisting in each jaw of two pieces fused on midline and covered by layer of enamel; nostrils consisting of two fleshy lobes placed in front of folded collar surrounding the opening; two pairs of non-perforated nasal tentacles; dorsal and anal fins short and placed far back on body; pectoral fins well developed; no pelvic fins; caudal fin rounded, its length comprised 3 times in SL; longitudinal stripes along sides of body in adults; black-rimmed red ocelli (eyespots) present in juveniles (Ref. 57417).
Found in large rivers (Ref. 2829), open water, weed beds and vegetated fringes; feeds on mollusks (Ref. 28714). Ventral pocket communicates gill chamber with oesophagus, allowing fish to inflate its body like a ball (Ref. 57417).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roberts, T.R., 1986. Tetraodontidae. p. 434-436. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 2829)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01193 - 0.05536), b=2.88 (2.71 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 111 [46, 247] mg/100g; Iron = 1.1 [0.5, 2.5] mg/100g; Protein = 17.9 [15.8, 20.2] %; Omega3 = 0.211 [0.092, 0.466] g/100g; Selenium = 61.4 [30.7, 137.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 11.3 [3.9, 32.6] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.06 [0.73, 1.59] mg/100g (wet weight);