Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Bramidae
Etymology: Taractes: Greek, taraktes = confusion; for the pletora of names that have been applied to this fish (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Jordan & Evermann.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 600 m (Ref. 82736). Tropical
Pacific and Atlantic: widely distributed in tropical waters (Ref. 559). Eastern Central Pacific: Costa Rica to Peru. Eastern Atlantic: off west Africa. Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico, Trinidad. Not known from the Indian Ocean (Ref. 4936). Recently reported in Aden Gulf, Arabian Sea (Ref. 85285). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 89.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 97146); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
soft rays: 21 - 23. Caudal peduncle with a strong keel formed of enlarged and fused scales. Scaleless areas above and behind the eyes. Lateral line in adults obsolete. Fins of juveniles very long. Attains 70 cm SL.
Adults occur from shallow water to about 600 m depth offshore (Ref. 82736). Often solitary (Ref. 82736).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gomes, J., 1990. Bramidae. p. 758-764. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNCT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4936)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.7 - 26.1, mean 18.6 °C (based on 1171 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 54.4 [27.0, 99.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.537 [0.270, 0.976] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.249 [0.142, 0.421] g/100g ; Selenium = 65 [31, 126] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 63 [22, 184] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.766 [0.459, 1.224] mg/100g (wet weight);