Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bonnaterre.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Subtropical; 46°N - 30°N, 10°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean Sea and from Arcachon basin to Gibraltar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 4.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 4742)
Found in littoral areas, in eel-grass beds, sometimes on soft bottoms (1-20 m), often in lagoons and estuaries with plenty of vegetation and detritus (Ref. 4742). Often in aggregation (Ref. 4742). Feed on shrimps, amphipods, isopods, small gastropods and bivalves (Ref. 4742). Females spawn in a nest built and guarded by the male (Ref. 4742). Males grow faster than females (Ref. 4742). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). One or two females spawn in the nest built and guarded by a male (Ref. 4742).
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.2 - 21.3, mean 18.8 °C (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00917 - 0.01312), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.29-0.35; tm=1-2; tmax=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 213 [98, 452] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.92 [1.09, 3.96] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [14.6, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.837 [0.381, 1.871] g/100g ; Selenium = 24 [10, 55] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.2 [8.4, 103.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.62 [0.99, 3.34] mg/100g (wet weight);