Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: DeKay.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 65 m (Ref. 108739), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 45°N - 18°N, 98°W - 62°W
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts to southern Florida in USA and Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.5 - 27.7, mean 24.4 °C (based on 310 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00333 - 0.01504), b=2.92 (2.75 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21.6 [8.6, 54.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.528 [0.234, 1.979] mg/100g ; Protein = 21 [19, 23] % ; Omega3 = 0.166 [0.075, 0.389] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.5 [5.8, 41.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 23.5 [5.0, 163.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.492 [0.280, 0.915] mg/100g (wet weight);