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Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra, 1991

Multispotted grouper
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Epinephelus gabriellae
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Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes(Släkte, Arter) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Epinephelidae (Groupers)
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Randall & Heemstra.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

marina bottenlevande; djupintervall 6 - 88 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 20°N - 11°N, 51°E - 59°E (Ref. 5222)

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: Somalia to Oman.

Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 11441)

Short description Bestämningsnycklar | Morfologi | Morfometri

Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt) : 11; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt) : 14 - 15; Taggstrålar i analfenan: 3; Mjukstrålar i analfenan: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head and body pale brownish gray, densely covered with tiny close-set dark orange-brown spots; median and paired fins spotted like body; caudal, soft dorsal and anal fins with white edge and a submarginal blackish zone; depth of body 3.2-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, dorsal head profile with slight indentation above nostrils; preopercular angular, with enlarged serrae at the angle and a shallow notch just above the angle; upper edge of operculum straight; posterior nostril slightly larger than anterior; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye; ventral edge of maxilla with a low step-like bend one orbit diameter from rear end of bone; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; lateral body scales ctenoid, with numerous auxiliary scales; pyloric caeca about 76 (Ref. 89707).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Found over rocky bottoms (Ref. 30573); reef-associated species. Juveniles/subadults inhabits shallow waters with high coral cover. Feeds on fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 89707). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduktion | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larver

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator | Medarbetare

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fiskeri: mindre kommeriell
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

Ytterligare information

Trophic ecology
Födoslag
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Predatorer
Ecology
Ekologi
Population dynamics
Growths
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Length-frequencies
Mass conversions
Recruitments
Abundances
Life cycle
Reproduktion
Maturities
Fecundities
Spawnings
Spawning aggregations
Egg(s)
Egg developments
Larver
Larvdynamik
Distribution
Länder
FAO områden
Ekosystem
Förekomster
Utplanteringar
BRUVS - Videos
Anatomy
Gill areas
Hjärnstorlek
Otoliths
Physiology
Body compositions
Nutrients
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Fiskljud
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Genetics
Genetik
Electrophoreses
Heritabilities
Human related
Aquaculture systems
Vattenbruksprofiler
Avelslinjer
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.
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References
referenser

Verktyg

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Internet-källor

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Släkte, Arter | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, sök | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00571 - 0.02419), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Mellan, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 1,4-4,4 år (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.