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Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra, 1991

Multispotted grouper
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Image of Epinephelus gabriellae (Multispotted grouper)
Epinephelus gabriellae
Picture by Field, R.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes(Marga, Jenis) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Epinephelidae (Groupers)
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Randall & Heemstra.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

laut dasar (demersal); kisaran kedalaman 6 - 88 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 20°N - 11°N, 51°E - 59°E (Ref. 5222)

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: Somalia to Oman.

Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 11441)

deskripsi pendek Kunci identifiaksi (pengenalan) | Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)) : 11; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)) : 14 - 15; Duri dubur: 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head and body pale brownish gray, densely covered with tiny close-set dark orange-brown spots; median and paired fins spotted like body; caudal, soft dorsal and anal fins with white edge and a submarginal blackish zone; depth of body 3.2-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, dorsal head profile with slight indentation above nostrils; preopercular angular, with enlarged serrae at the angle and a shallow notch just above the angle; upper edge of operculum straight; posterior nostril slightly larger than anterior; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye; ventral edge of maxilla with a low step-like bend one orbit diameter from rear end of bone; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; lateral body scales ctenoid, with numerous auxiliary scales; pyloric caeca about 76 (Ref. 89707).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Found over rocky bottoms (Ref. 30573); reef-associated species. Juveniles/subadults inhabits shallow waters with high coral cover. Feeds on fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 89707). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larva

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 130435)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

informasi lanjut

Trophic ecology
Bahan makanan
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Pemangsa
Ecology
Ekologi
Population dynamics
Growths
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
ukuran frekuensi
Mass conversions
Recruitments
Abundances
Life cycle
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Maturities
Fecundities
Spawnings
Spawning aggregations
Egg(s)
Egg developments
Larva
Dinamika larva
Distribution
Negara-negara
Daerah-daerah FAO
Ecosystems
Kemunculan
Introduksi
BRUVS - Videos
Anatomy
Gill areas
Otak
Otoliths
Physiology
Body compositions
Nutrients
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Suara-suara ikan
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Genetics
Genetika
Electrophoreses
Heritabilities
Human related
Aquaculture systems
profil budidaya air
Strain
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.
Outreach
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References
Acuan

Alat, peralatan

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Sumber internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Marga, Jenis | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genom, Nukleotida | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: pergi, Cari | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00571 - 0.02419), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Very high.