Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - 15°C (Ref. 44894); 6°S - 14°S
Asia and Oceania: northern Australia and central-southern New Guinea (Ref. 58511).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 45.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 55.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Adults occur in still waters of streams and swamps where it is usually seen near the surface or close to shore among aquatic vegetation (Ref. 2847, 44894). Solitary, territorial and spawn prior to the wet season when surface water temperatures approach 30°C (Ref. 44894). Young feed primarily on microcrustaceans (Ref. 2847). Primarily a surface feeder, feeding on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic insects, small fishes, frogs, crustaceans, and some plant material (Ref. 44894). Mouthbrooders (Ref. 56180). Maximum weight reported in Ref. 5259 may be 12.27 kg (W. Lau, pers. Comm. 07/05). Important food fish (Ref. 58511) and a valuable aquarium fish (Ref. 83518).
Fertilized eggs are carried in the mouth of the female. Eggs hatch in 1-2 weeks. Larvae, with their enlarged yolk sac, are kept in or close to the mouth for another 4 or 5 weeks. Young fish commence feeding, primarily on microcrustaceans, at a size of 2-3 cm, well before the yolk sac is entirely resorbed. Become independent at a length of 3.5-4.0 cm.
Allen, G.R., 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Publication, no. 9. 268 p. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 2847)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5781 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=4-5; Fec=30-130).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .