Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 62 m (Ref. 58047), usually 2 - 35 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 33°N - 35°S, 98°W - 19°E
Western Atlantic: Bermuda and southern Florida, USA to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola, including St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), Cape Verde, St. Helena and Ascension islands. One record from Cape of Good Hope, South Africa (Ref. 7320).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3632)
A solitary species (Ref. 26340) inhabiting shallow water on bottoms with eroded limestone or mixed sand and rocks, as well as around reefs. Often found lying motionless against rocks (Ref. 13121). Secretes copious mucus which makes its surface slimy and when disturbed the slime turns into a soapy foam. The mucus has been shown to contain a toxic protein (Ref. 3632). Nocturnal, frequently seen around the bases of coral colonies and near mouths of caves (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 708 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52.9 [31.3, 99.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.522 [0.307, 0.865] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.8, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.158 [0.105, 0.241] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.4 [21.1, 64.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 108 [37, 328] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.13 [0.76, 1.65] mg/100g (wet weight);