Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Embiotocidae
Etymology: Rhacochilus: Rhakos, -eos = big tear + Greek, cheilos = lip (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 46 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 57°N - 27°N, 138°W - 114°W
Eastern Pacific: Wrangell, southeastern Alaska to Guadalupe Island, off north-central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27436)
(total): 9 - 11;
soft rays: 27 - 30;
Vertebrae: 33 - 38. Above, dark gray or brown pigment with a silvery luster which dominates the color on sides and belly; darker blotches on the back and sides, dark vertical bars on juveniles; fins dusky (Ref. 6885).
Adults occur in rocky shores, often around kelp, pilings and underwater structures (Ref. 2850). Feed on hard-shelled mollusks, crabs and barnacles (Ref. 2850). Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.6 - 15.3, mean 10.3 °C (based on 62 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00842 - 0.04514), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2.5; tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 80.6 [46.4, 155.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.74, 1.82] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.2, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.327 [0.210, 0.507] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.1 [16.0, 55.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.36 [2.95, 24.77] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.734 [0.501, 1.040] mg/100g (wet weight);