Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 25°N - 24°S, 72°E - 170°E
Indo-Pacific: Maldives to Vanuatu, north to the Yaeyama Islands; Palau and Krosae in Micronesia (Ref. 1602).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Found in coral rich areas of lagoons, channels, and outer reef slopes. Often near caves (Ref. 9710). Juveniles settle in very shallow inshore caves with algae growth (Ref. 48636). Usually solitary. Feeds on sponges and other encrusting organisms (Ref. 6113) and tunicates. Occasionally exported through the aquarium trade (Ref. 48391). Individuals under 20 cm in length are best adapted to tank life (Ref. 4907).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2337 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03890 (0.01681 - 0.09007), b=2.88 (2.70 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.4 [20.1, 55.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.49 [0.32, 0.79] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.4, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.113 [0.072, 0.173] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.3 [16.1, 54.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 63.7 [17.4, 217.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.18 [0.78, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);