Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 40 - 600 m (Ref. 7251), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 36731). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 70°N - 55°S, 82°W - 179°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa (Ref. 6633), including the Mediterranean, Canary Islands, Madeira, Cape Verde, and Tristan da Cunha. Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada and Gulf of Maine to North Carolina, USA (Ref. 7251). Recorded from Uruguay to Argentina (Ref. 9050). Western Indian Ocean: St. Paul and Amsterdam islands (Ref. 6633). Southwest Pacific: New Zealand (Ref. 5755, 9072).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 77.9  range ? - 90 cm
Max length : 210 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 100.0 kg (Ref. 35388)
(total): 10 - 12;
soft rays: 8 - 10. Bluish grey above, paler below with a silvery sheen; fins blackish brown (Ref. 6633). Juveniles have black blotches on head and body (Ref. 6633). Body tall, compressed. Big mouth with big head and a rough bony ridge across upper part of the gill cover (Ref. 35388).
Adults prefer to inhabit caves and shipwrecks (Ref. 27121). Juveniles congregate below floating objects (Ref. 27121). Usually solitary. Feed on large crustaceans, cephalopods and benthic fishes (Ref. 27121). Spawn in the summer (Ref. 35388). Are primary gonochorists (Ref. 58421). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 6633.
Primary gonochorists (Ref. 58421).
Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37. (Ref. 5204)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.2 - 19, mean 9.4 °C (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00967 - 0.01797), b=3.00 (2.91 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.05-0.08; tmax=76; tm=9-10 yrs estimated from VBGF; Fec=3 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 7.74 [4.32, 13.43] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.243 [0.149, 0.392] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.6 [19.0, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.426 [0.330, 0.548] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.2 [13.0, 60.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.4 [2.9, 35.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.244 [0.175, 0.336] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.