Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Pholidae
Etymology: Pholis: Greek, pholis, -idos = scale (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 56557). Temperate; 55°N - 36°N, 129°E - 122°W
Eastern Pacific: southern British Columbia to central California, USA. Authors giving range up to northwestern Pacific classify Pholis nea Peden & Hughes, 1984 as a synonym of Pholis ornata.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found in inshore areas, on mud bottoms among eelgrass and seaweed (Ref. 2850). Feeds on small mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 2850). Both male and female guard egg mass (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 101786). Adhesive eggs attached to a nest substrate are brooded by both parents (Ref. 101786).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.9 - 12.5, mean 10.4 (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00178 (0.00071 - 0.00449), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .