Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Pellonula: Latin, pellis = skin + Latin, nullus = no one (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 13°N - 13°S
Africa: lagoons and lower parts of rivers from Liberia to Angola (Ref. 188, 2244, 28136, 81269, 81631), also in Guinea-Bissau (Ref. 3033); however it seems to be absent in the area between Ghana and Niger River Delta (Ref. 2244, 28136), except for Lake Nokoué (Ref. 81269). This species was not observed far upstream rivers (Ref. 2244), although it has been found recently in Léfini River, part of Middle Congo River basin (Ref. 88782). The type locality of the syntypes of the nominal species Pellonula stanleyana, 'Stanley Falls' (Ref. 2263), seems to be an erroneous locality (Ref. 188), and should be 'Cette Cama [= Sette Cama]' in Gabon (Ref. 2244).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 16 - 21;
Vertebrae: 42 - 43. Diagnosis: Body moderate or fairly deep, its depth 23-30% of standard length; 1 or more scutes beginning in front of base of first pectoral finray, with 11-16 pre-pelvic and 8-11 post-pelvic scutes, and a total of 20-25 scutes, first pre-pelvic scute always longer and better developed than following scutes lacking ascending arms; lower jaw slightly projecting, teeth at symphysis large in large specimens; pre-maxilla teeth well-developed, fairly straight and outward pointing, an indented toothless gap at centre of jaw; lower gillrakers 24-37, equal to or longer than corresponding gill filaments; silver stripe along flank (Ref. 188, 2244, 81269, 81631). It resembles Pellonula leonensis, which has small and inward-curving teeth and no pre-pectoral scutes (Ref. 188, 81269, 81631). The absence of large canine teeth in the upper jaw distinguishes it from Odaxothrissa (Ref. 188).
Found in rivers and streams (Ref. 188). It forms large schools in lower courses of rivers (Ref. 2244, 43836), and is very abundant in brackish water habitat (Ref. 86940).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gourène, G. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Révision du genre Pellonula des eaux douces africaines (Pisces: Clupeidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(3):213-225. (Ref. 2244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00433 - 0.01920), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec < 1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .