Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Pentanchidae
Etymology: Parmaturus: Latin, parma, -ae = a little shield + Greek, oura = tail.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 670 - 1500 m (Ref. 26346), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Southwest in the Indian Ocea, Madagascar and the Pacific, New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346)
A rare and poorly known species inhabiting the lower continental slope (Ref. 26346).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cox, G. and M. Francis, 1997. Sharks and rays of New Zealand. Canterbury Univ. Press, Univ. of Canterbury. 68 p. (Ref. 26346)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.2 - 7.3, mean 5.8 °C (based on 161 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00154 - 0.00678), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .