Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Tropical; 23°C - 42°C (Ref. 670); 13°S - 17°S
Africa: Shiré River above the Murchison rapids and its tributaries; upper Shire; Lake Malawi and its tributary rivers, streams and lagoons; Lake Chilwa and its basin in Malawi and Mozambique. Two subspecies are recognized: Oreochromis shiranus chilwae and Oreochromis shiranus shiranus.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.5, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 21)
(total): 15 - 18;
soft rays: 9 - 11;
Vertebrae: 30. The pharyngeal teeth are very slender and overlapping. There are 4-7 scales between bases of pectoral and pelvic fins and 2-3 rows on the cheek. The rays are scaly. Other source of morphological information: Ref. 6150.
Occurs at temperatures ranging from 23.0-42.0 °C (Ref. 670). Found mainly in densely vegetated shallow waters around the lake. Mainly diurnal; feeds on detritus and phytoplankton (Ref. 5595).
Builds basin-shaped nests in shallow water from 0.15 m to 1.5 m deep , in sand overlaid with mud, in the vicinity of rooted aquatic vegetation. Females brood eggs and young in the mouth until the young reach a length of about 10 mm.
Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Oreochromis. p. 307-346. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Checklist of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5166)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00753 - 0.02106), b=2.98 (2.84 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27-0.32).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .