Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Ariidae
(Sea catfishes) > Ariinae
Etymology: Netuma: A Tamil word that means "dance". More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to the Indo-Malayan region, northern Australia, Queensland, and north to southern Japan. Has long been confused with Arius thalassinus (Rüppell 1837).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114032)
soft rays: 17 - 21;
Vertebrae: 53 - 58. Dorsomedian head groove bordered posteriorly by slightly raised frontals and forming a "V". Gill rakers usually absent on hind aspect of first 2 gill arches. Caudal fin lobes slender and tapered. Adipose fin short-based and located posteriorly.
Inhabits coastal waters, from estuaries onto the continental shelf. Found mostly on mudflats; males incubate eggs in its mouth (Ref. 68964). Mainly opportunistic and carnivorous; feeding on sea urchins, crustaceans, fish, prawns, loose scales, and detritus (Ref. 38478). Has a sharp and venomous dorsal and pectoral spines that can inflict extremely painful injuries(Ref. 68964). An important food fish (Ref. 7050).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kailola, P.J., 1999. Ariidae (=Tachysuridae): sea catfishes (fork-tailed catfishes). p. 1827-1879. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 38478)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.2, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1456 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00384 - 0.01719), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.49 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 143 [66, 295] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.796 [0.474, 1.411] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.6 [14.9, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.343 [0.154, 0.700] g/100g ; Selenium = 77.3 [35.6, 174.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.3 [10.9, 84.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.29 [0.77, 2.33] mg/100g (wet weight);