Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 7251). Temperate; 50°N - 32°N, 96°W - 59°W
North America: Atlantic Slope drainages from St. Lawrence drainage in Quebec, Canada south to Savannah River in Georgia, USA. Transplanted to Great Lakes (except Superior) and Ohio-Missouri-Mississippi river systems of mid-western USA; elsewere as far west as Colorado, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86798); common length : 13.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 2.2 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 16 years (Ref. 72462)
Occurs in fresh, brackish and coastal waters (Ref. 7251). Inhabits pools and other quiet-water areas of medium to large rivers, usually over mud (Ref. 86798). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Assuming same mode of reproduction as in M. saxatilis.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.7 - 18.2, mean 10.2 (based on 64 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5781 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00183 - 0.01092), b=3.13 (2.91 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.35 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.13; tmax=7(?)).
Prior r = 0.32, 2 SD range = 0.13 - 0.78, log(r) = -1.14, SD log(r) = 0.45, Based on: 1 K, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .