Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 110 m (Ref. 39597), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Pacific: southern Japan south to Hong Kong, the Philippines and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Found in sheltered bays, shallow inshore and probably ranging to deep offshore in mud-sand habitats (Ref. 559, 48635). Buries itself during the day in the substrate and is rarely observed, except when found by accident or at night (Ref. 48635). Usually covered with hydroids (Ref. 39597).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.9 - 28.2, mean 27.2 °C (based on 237 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00423 - 0.02842), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .