Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 55 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Indonesia, north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4690)
Found near shore, including semi-enclosed sea areas; inhabits soft bottoms of the continental shelf (Ref. 11230). Anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland (Ref. 57406). Sold in small quantities either fresh or dried and salted. Also found in sand bottoms in 10-55 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poss, S.G. and K.V. Rama Rao, 1984. Scorpaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3503)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.3 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 1274 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.00814 - 0.05366), b=2.99 (2.77 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .