Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.5 - 7.5; dH range: 2 - 20. Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 1672)
South America: Amazon River basin.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - ? cm
Max length : 37.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111518)
Adults occur in rocky areas of rapidly flowing waters. Feed on worms, crustaceans, insects and plant matter (Ref. 7020), and fish. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205). Breeding takes place from December to May. Sexually mature at 15 cm (Ref. 12225).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205). Males tend to stay where the nests are located (Ref. 205).
Garavello, J.C. and H.A. Britski, 2003. Anostomidae (Headstanders). p. 71-84. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00655 - 0.01600), b=3.08 (2.95 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100).