Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 9626). Tropical; 21°N - 26°S, 90°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Antilles and Costa Rica to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Also Honduras (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 500.00 g (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 7 - 8. Colour silvery grey, darker above. A dark spot at bases of pectoral fins. Pelvic and anal fins often yellowish. A medium-sized to small fish, short and robust. Mouth very large, strongly oblique, lower jaw projecting. Teeth very small and sharp, set in 1 or 2 rows along edges of jaws. Chin without barbels, but with 4 minute pores. Snout with 5 marginal pores, no rostral pores. Gas bladder with a pair of small, horn-like anterior appendages. Sagitta (large earstone) thick and short (Ref 51721).
Inhabits coastal waters, usually found over mud and sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 3702). Also in estuaries (Ref. 3702). Important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.1, mean 27.5 (based on 186 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00786 - 0.00965), b=3.07 (3.04 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .