Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gobiiformes
(Gobies) > Gobiidae
(Gobies) > Gobionellinae
Etymology: Knipowitschia: Because of N.M.Knipowitsch, a zoologist and Russian ichthyologist from the Academy of Sciences. Expeditions in "Pomor" and "Pervosvanniy" ships to Azov and Black sea (1898-1908).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate; 47°N - 44°N
Europe: Italy and Croatia (Ref. 26100) and Slovenia (Ref. 119201).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.5 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 7;
Vertebrae: 31. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: no head lateral line canals; scales only under pectoral; body of live breeding males with 10-15 dark, irregular bars; D1 7 rays, D2 8.5 branched rays, A 7-8.5 branched rays (Ref. 59043); interorbit with uniserial row of papillae flanking each orbit (Ref. 12215).
A short-lived species (less than 2 years) which occurs in small and karstic springs and streams, densely vegetated channels and slow-flowing streams (Ref. 59043); with constant water temperature, on sand or gravel with or without vegetation, also in silty areas, provided that the water remains clear (Ref. 26100). Feeds on small invertebrates. Spawns after first winter (February-July); females may spawn more than once during this season. Males defend the eggs deposited in cavities under stones, plant material or shells. Postlarvae pelagic. This species is threatened by water abstraction, which lowers the water table and habitat destruction caused by desiccation of some springs (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Females may spawn more than once during a season (Ref. 59043).
Miller, P.J., 1990. The endurance of endemism: the Mediterranean freshwater gobies and their prospects for survival. J. Fish Biol. 37(Suppl.A):145-156. (Ref. 12215)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00456 - 0.02402), b=3.07 (2.88 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .